A Dictionary Of Modern English Usage

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A Dictionary of Modern English Usage

A Dictionary of Modern English Usage Pdf/ePub eBook Author:
Editor: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191615110
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A Dictionary of Modern English Usage by Summary

'What grammarians say should be has perhaps less influence on what shall be than even the more modest of them realize ...' No book had more influence on twentieth-century attitudes to the English language in Britain than Henry Fowler's Dictionary of Modern English Usage. It rapidly became the standard work of reference for the correct use of English in terms of choice of words, grammar, and style. Much loved for his firm opinions, passion, and dry humour, Fowler has stood the test of time and is still considered the best arbiter of good practice. In this new edition of the original Dictionary, David Crystal goes beyond the popular mythology surrounding Fowler's reputation to retrace his method and arrive at a fresh evaluation of his place in the history of linguistic thought. With a wealth of entertaining examples he looks at Fowler's stated principles and the tensions between his prescriptive and descriptive temperaments. He shows that the Dictionary does a great more than make normative recommendations and express private opinion. In addition he offers a modern perspective on some 300 entries, in which he shows how English has changed since the 1920s. ABOUT THE SERIES: For over 100 years Oxford World's Classics has made available the widest range of literature from around the globe. Each affordable volume reflects Oxford's commitment to scholarship, providing the most accurate text plus a wealth of other valuable features, including expert introductions by leading authorities, helpful notes to clarify the text, up-to-date bibliographies for further study, and much more.

Fowler's Dictionary of Modern English Usage

Fowler's Dictionary of Modern English Usage Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Jeremy Butterfield
Editor: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0191064947
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Fowler's Dictionary of Modern English Usage by Jeremy Butterfield Summary

Why literally shouldn't be taken literally. Why Americans think home in on something is a mistake and Brits think hone in is. Is it OK to spell OK okay? What's wrong with hence why? Was Alanis Morrisette ever ironic? Fowler's Dictionary of Modern English Usage is the world-famous guide to English usage, loved and used by writers, editors, and anyone who values correct English since it first appeared in 1926. Fowler's gives comprehensive and practical advice on complex points of grammar, syntax, punctuation, style, and word choice. Now enlarged and completely revised to reflect English usage in the 21st century, it provides a crystal-clear, authoritative picture of the English we use, while illuminating scores of usage questions old and new. International in scope, it gives in-depth coverage of both British and American English usage issues, with reference also to the English of Australia, Canada, India, New Zealand, and South Africa. The thousands of authentic examples in the book vividly demonstra

Fowler's Concise Dictionary of Modern English Usage

Fowler's Concise Dictionary of Modern English Usage Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Jeremy Butterfield
Editor: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0191062308
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Fowler's Concise Dictionary of Modern English Usage by Jeremy Butterfield Summary

Fowler's Concise Dictionary of Modern English Usage is an invaluable reference work that offers the best advice on English usage. Known in previous editions as the 'Pocket Fowler', this third edition is a descendant of the original 1926 edition of A Dictionary of Modern English Usage by Henry Fowler. Based on the unrivalled evidence and research of the Oxford Languages Programme, the new edition answers your most frequently asked questions about language use. Should you use a split infinitive, or a preposition at the end of a sentence? Is it infer or imply? Who or whom? What are the main differences between British and American English? Over 4,000 entries offer clear recommendations on issues of grammar, pronunciation, spelling, confusable words, and written style. Real examples are drawn from OUP's vast database of classic and contemporary literary sources, newspapers and magazines, and the Internet. Jeremy Butterfield has judiciously revised the text to reflect the English usage practices and con

The Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar

The Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Bas Aarts,Sylvia Chalker,Edmund Weiner
Editor: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191079006
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The Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar by Bas Aarts,Sylvia Chalker,Edmund Weiner Summary

The Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar is a straightforward and accessible A-Z guide to the diverse and often complex terminology of English grammar. It contains over 1,600 entries with clear and concise definitions, enhanced by numerous example sentences, as well as relevant quotations from the scholarly literature of the field. This second edition is written and edited by Professor Bas Aarts of University College London, writer of the acclaimed Oxford Modern English Grammar. It has been fully revised and updated, with particular attention paid to refreshing the example sentences included within the text. There are over 150 new entries that cover current terminology which has arisen since the publication of the first edition, and there are also new entries on the most important English grammars published since the start of the 20th century. Hundreds of new cross-references enhance the user-friendly nature of the text, and the list of works cited has been thoroughly updated to reflect the current state of the field. A short appendix of web links has been added. All in all, this Dictionary is an invaluable guide to English grammar for all students and teachers of the subject, as well as all those with an informed interest in the English language.

Oxford A-Z of English Usage

Oxford A-Z of English Usage Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Jeremy Butterfield
Editor: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0192689274
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Oxford A-Z of English Usage by Jeremy Butterfield Summary

Readers and writers of all levels will find the Oxford A-Z of English Usage essential. Based on Oxford's world-leading dictionary research programmes and contemporary language monitoring, and giving examples of real usage, this book provides the essential information about usage and correct English that is needed in practical, everyday situations. Arranged in A-Z sequence, it contains over 680 entries on issues of spelling, grammar, meaning and PC language that confuse people (e.g. licence / license; learning difficulties / mental handicap; fewer / less). In addition, there are more than 20 special feature articles on specific topics such as hyphenation or the use of Latin plurals, as well as commonly confused terms like Britain, Great Britain, the British Isles, England. With a fresh page design, the Oxford A-Z of English Usage gives the reader immediate and easy access to answers, by means of clear and coherent explanations and illustrations. It will prove the first port of call for any reader seeking clear, authoritative help with usage questions.

Damp Squid

Damp Squid Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Jeremy Butterfield
Editor: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191587532
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Damp Squid by Jeremy Butterfield Summary

How many words are there in the English language and where were they born? Why does spelling 'wobble' and why do meanings change? How do words behave towards each other - and how do we behave towards words? And what does this all mean for dictionary-making in the 21st century? This entertaining book has the up-to-date and authoritative answers to all the key questions about our language. Using evidence provided by the world's largest language databank, the Oxford English Corpus, Butterfield exposes the English language's peculiarities and penchants, its development and difficulties, revealing exactly how it operates. Interpolating his expert knowledge of dictionary-making, Butterfield explains how dictionaries decide which words to include, how they find definitions, and how a Corpus influences the process. Whether you are happy to give the language free rein (free reign?), or whether you are more straight-laced (strait-laced?) when it comes to change, you will be amazed at what is revealed when the English language goes buck naked. (Or should that be butt naked?)

The Routledge Dictionary of Modern American Slang and Unconventional English

The Routledge Dictionary of Modern American Slang and Unconventional English Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Tom Dalzell
Editor: Routledge
ISBN: 1351765205
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The Routledge Dictionary of Modern American Slang and Unconventional English by Tom Dalzell Summary

The Routledge Dictionary of Modern American Slang offers the ultimate record of modern, post WW2 American Slang. The 25,000 entries are accompanied by citations that authenticate the words as well as offer examples of usage from popular literature, newspapers, magazines, movies, television shows, musical lyrics, and Internet user groups. Etymology, cultural context, country of origin and the date the word was first used are also provided. In terms of content, the cultural transformations since 1945 are astounding. Television, computers, drugs, music, unpopular wars, youth movements, changing racial sensitivities and attitudes towards sex and sexuality are all substantial factors that have shaped culture and language. This new edition includes over 500 new headwords collected with citations from the last five years, a period of immense change in the English language, as well as revised existing entries with new dating and citations. No term is excluded on the grounds that it might be considered offensive as a racial, ethnic, religious, sexual or any kind of slur. This dictionary contains many entries and citations that will, and should, offend. Rich, scholarly and informative, The Routledge Dictionary of Modern American Slang and Unconventional English is an indispensable resource for language researchers, lexicographers and translators.

Dictionary of Confusable Words

Dictionary of Confusable Words Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Adrian Room
Editor: Routledge
ISBN: 1136597824
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Dictionary of Confusable Words by Adrian Room Summary

First Published in 2000. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

Robert Hartwell Fiske's Dictionary of Unendurable English

Robert Hartwell Fiske's Dictionary of Unendurable English Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Robert Hartwell Fiske
Editor: Simon and Schuster
ISBN: 1451651341
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Robert Hartwell Fiske's Dictionary of Unendurable English by Robert Hartwell Fiske Summary

Robert Hartwell Fiske aims to eliminate laxity in language today by way of this witty and engaging reference. Fiske rails against "laxicographers and ding-a-linguists" who, with their misguided thinking, actually promote the dissolution of the English language. He also illustrates why dictionaries don't always provide the correct meaning or usage of a word. With concise instruction and numerous examples of misused words, Fiske makes it easier than ever to learn from others' mistakes. This comprehensive dictionary of common misusages lays bare the mistakes we all make every day. Robert Hartwell Fiske, the grumbling grammarian of our time, shows you the definitive right way and wrong way to use language--and illustrates why dictionaries don't always provide the correct meaning or usage of a word.

Word by Word

Word by Word Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Kory Stamper
Editor: Vintage
ISBN: 1101870958
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Word by Word by Kory Stamper Summary

“We think of English as a fortress to be defended, but a better analogy is to think of English as a child. We love and nurture it into being, and once it gains gross motor skills, it starts going exactly where we don’t want it to go: it heads right for the goddamned electrical sockets.” With wit and irreverence, lexicographer Kory Stamper cracks open the obsessive world of dictionary writing, from the agonizing decisions about what to define and how to do it to the knotty questions of ever-changing word usage. Filled with fun facts—for example, the first documented usage of “OMG” was in a letter to Winston Churchill—and Stamper’s own stories from the linguistic front lines (including how she became America’s foremost “irregardless” apologist, despite loathing the word), Word by Word is an endlessly entertaining look at the wonderful complexities and eccentricities of the English language.

Oxford Modern English Grammar

Oxford Modern English Grammar Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Bas Aarts
Editor: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191650471
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Oxford Modern English Grammar by Bas Aarts Summary

Oxford Modern English Grammar is Oxford's brand new and definitive guide to English grammar. This book has been written by a leading expert in the field, covers both British and American English, and makes use of authentic spoken and written examples. Arranged in four clear parts for ease of use, its comprehensive coverage ranges from the very basic to the most complex aspects of grammar, all of which are explained clearly yet authoritatively. This descriptive source of reference is invaluable for those with an interest in the English language, undergraduate and postgraduate students, and for anyone who would like a clear guide to English grammar and how it is used.

A Dictionary of Sociology

A Dictionary of Sociology Pdf/ePub eBook Author: John Scott
Editor: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191047554
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A Dictionary of Sociology by John Scott Summary

A consistent best-seller, the wide-ranging and authoritative Dictionary of Sociology was first published in 1994 and contains more than 2,500 entries on the terminology, methods, concepts, and thinkers in the field, as well as from the related fields of psychology, economics, anthropology, philosophy, and political science. For this fourth edition, Professor John Scott has conducted a thorough review of all entries to ensure that they are concise, focused, and up to date. Revisions reflect current intellectual debates and social conditions, particularly in relation to global and multi-cultural issues. New entries cover relevant contemporary concepts, such as climate change, social media, terrorism, and intersectionality, as well as key living sociologists. This Dictionary is both an invaluable introduction to sociology for beginners, and an essential source of reference for more advanced students and teachers.

The Chicago Guide to Grammar, Usage, and Punctuation

The Chicago Guide to Grammar, Usage, and Punctuation Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Bryan A. Garner
Editor: Univ of Chicago+ORM
ISBN: 022619129X
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The Chicago Guide to Grammar, Usage, and Punctuation by Bryan A. Garner Summary

The authoritative guide to using the English language effectively, from “the greatest writer on grammar and usage that this country has ever produced” (David Yerkes, Columbia University). The author of The Chicago Manual of Style’s popular “Grammar and Usage” chapter, Bryan A. Garner is renowned for explaining the vagaries of English with absolute precision and utmost clarity. With The Chicago Guide to Grammar, Usage, and Punctuation, he has written the definitive guide for writers who want their prose to be both memorable and correct. Garner describes standard literary English—the forms that mark writers and speakers as educated users of the language. He also offers historical context for understanding the development of these forms. The section on grammar explains how the canonical parts of speech came to be identified, while the section on syntax covers the nuances of sentence patterns as well as both traditional sentence diagramming and transformational grammar. The usage section provides an unprecedented trove of empirical evidence in the form of Google Ngrams, diagrams that illustrate the changing prevalence of specific terms over decades and even centuries of English literature. Garner also treats punctuation and word formation, and concludes the book with an exhaustive glossary of grammatical terms and a bibliography of suggested further reading and references. The Chicago Guide to Grammar, Usage, and Punctuation is a magisterial work, the culmination of Garner’s lifelong study of the English language. The result is a landmark resource that will offer clear guidelines to students, writers, and editors alike. “[A manual] for those of us laboring to produce expository prose: nonfiction books, journalistic articles, memorandums, business letters. The conservatism of his advice pushes you to consider audience and occasion, so that you will understand when to follow convention and when you can safely break it.”—John E. McIntyre, Baltimore Sun

The Dictionary of Lost Words

The Dictionary of Lost Words Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Pip Williams
Editor: Ballantine Books
ISBN: 1984820737
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The Dictionary of Lost Words by Pip Williams Summary

REESE’S BOOK CLUB PICK FOR MAY ’22! • “Delightful . . . [a] captivating and slyly subversive fictional paean to the real women whose work on the Oxford English Dictionary went largely unheralded.”—The New York Times Book Review “A marvelous fiction about the power of language to elevate or repress.”—Geraldine Brooks, New York Times bestselling author of People of the Book Esme is born into a world of words. Motherless and irrepressibly curious, she spends her childhood in the Scriptorium, an Oxford garden shed in which her father and a team of dedicated lexicographers are collecting words for the very first Oxford English Dictionary. Young Esme’s place is beneath the sorting table, unseen and unheard. One day a slip of paper containing the word bondmaid flutters beneath the table. She rescues the slip and, learning that the word means “slave girl,” begins to collect other words that have been discarded or neglected by the dictionary men. As she grows up, Esme realizes that words and meanings relating to women’s and common folks’ experiences often go unrecorded. And so she begins in earnest to search out words for her own dictionary: the Dictionary of Lost Words. To do so she must leave the sheltered world of the university and venture out to meet the people whose words will fill those pages. Set during the height of the women’s suffrage movement and with the Great War looming, The Dictionary of Lost Words reveals a lost narrative, hidden between the lines of a history written by men. Inspired by actual events, author Pip Williams has delved into the archives of the Oxford English Dictionary to tell this highly original story. The Dictionary of Lost Words is a delightful, lyrical, and deeply thought-provoking celebration of words and the power of language to shape the world. WINNER OF THE AUSTRALIAN BOOK INDUSTRY AWARD

A Dictionary of English Normative Grammar 1700–1800 (DENG)

A Dictionary of English Normative Grammar 1700–1800 (DENG) Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Bertil Sundby,Anne Kari Bjørge,Kari E. Haugland
Editor: John Benjamins Publishing
ISBN: 9027277680
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A Dictionary of English Normative Grammar 1700–1800 (DENG) by Bertil Sundby,Anne Kari Bjørge,Kari E. Haugland Summary

Eighteenth-century English grammarians plead eloquently for purity, precision and perspicuity, but their method of teaching largely amounts to citing examples of impurity, imprecision and lack of clarity from contemporary writings. This book is the first of its kind to provide a detailed systematic account of such 'errors'. Apart from source and page references, the Dictionary gives the context of the error (I have not wept this forty years), the correct or 'target' form ('these forty years'), the name of the authors quoted by the grammarians ('Addison', 'Swift'), and the labels which sum up their assessment of the error ('absurd', 'solecism'). It operates with error categories such as ambiguity, ellipsis and government (fourteen in all), which are subdivided into grammatically described main entries, subentries, and so on. The Introduction includes a guide to the use of the Dictionary, the grammatical code, and a discussion of grammatical concepts, error typologies, problems of identifying literary sources, attitudes to correctness, grammatical figures, and other topics. A Bibliography and an Index of lexical items and technical terms round off the volume. The way the Dictionary is organized should make it possible to find in it the answer to a wide variety of questions pertaining to grammar, style and linguistic historiography.

Garner's Modern English Usage

Garner's Modern English Usage Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Bryan Garner
Editor: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190491507
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Garner's Modern English Usage by Bryan Garner Summary

With more than a thousand new entries and more than 2,300 word-frequency ratios, the magisterial fourth edition of this book-now renamed Garner's Modern English Usage (GMEU)-reflects usage lexicography at its finest. Garner explains the nuances of grammar and vocabulary with thoroughness, finesse, and wit. He discourages whatever is slovenly, pretentious, or pedantic. GMEU is the liveliest and most compulsively readable reference work for writers of our time. It delights while providing instruction on skillful, persuasive, and vivid writing. Garner liberates English from two extremes: both from the hidebound "purists" who mistakenly believe that split infinitives and sentence-ending prepositions are malfeasances and from the linguistic relativists who believe that whatever people say or write must necessarily be accepted. The judgments here are backed up not just by a lifetime of study but also by an empirical grounding in the largest linguistic corpus ever available. In this fourth edition, Garner has made extensive use of corpus linguistics to include ratios of standard terms as compared against variants in modern print sources. No other resource provides as comprehensive, reliable, and empirical a guide to current English usage. For all concerned with writing and editing, GMEU will prove invaluable as a desk reference. Garner illustrates with actual examples, cited with chapter and verse, all the linguistic blunders that modern writers and speakers are prone to, whether in word choice, syntax, phrasing, punctuation, or pronunciation. No matter how knowledgeable you may already be, you're sure to learn from every single page of this book.

A Dictionary of Grammatical Terms in Linguistics

A Dictionary of Grammatical Terms in Linguistics Pdf/ePub eBook Author: R.L. Trask
Editor: Routledge
ISBN: 1134884206
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A Dictionary of Grammatical Terms in Linguistics by R.L. Trask Summary

This dictionary of grammatical terms covers both current and traditional terminology in syntax and morphology. It includes descriptive terms, the major theoretical concepts of the most influential grammatical frameworks, and the chief terms from mathematical and computational linguistics. It contains over 1500 entries, providing definitions and examples, pronunciations, the earliest sources of terms and suggestions for further reading, and recommendations about competing and conflicting usages. The book focuses on non-theory-boumd descriptive terms, which are likely to remain current for some years. Aimed at students and teachers of linguistics, it allows a reader puzzled by a grammatical term to look it up and locate further reading with ease.

An Etymological Dictionary of Modern English

An Etymological Dictionary of Modern English Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Ernest Weekley
Editor: Courier Corporation
ISBN: 0486122875
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An Etymological Dictionary of Modern English by Ernest Weekley Summary

Volume 1 of 2. Classic contains most of the more common words, plus slang, archaic words and phrases, and common foreign words. Roots are identified, colloquial usages and alternate spellings are given.

A Concise Dictionary of Correct English

A Concise Dictionary of Correct English Pdf/ePub eBook Author: B. A. Phythian
Editor: Rowman & Littlefield
ISBN: 1442233877
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A Concise Dictionary of Correct English by B. A. Phythian Summary

Based on authoritative sources (Fowler, Gowers, Partridge and the Oxford dictionaries), this book is intended for those who would like to be guided round some of the more common pitfalls in the use of English. It is also a practical introduction to the grammar of modern English, grammar being the basis for a proper understanding of what is correct current usage. The compiler, while making a stand against linguistic abuses such as ungrammatical expressions and ugly coinages, circumlocutions and tautology, fashionable metaphors and misuse of technical terms, has an up-to-date attitude to English as a living, developing language, which is constantly changing through usage and the needs of its writers and speakers. Many, often entertaining, examples of both good and incorrect (but frequently found) English support the definitions in the dictionary.

A Dictionary of Modern English Usage

A Dictionary of Modern English Usage Pdf/ePub eBook Author: H. W. Fowler
Editor: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191571199
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A Dictionary of Modern English Usage by H. W. Fowler Summary

'What grammarians say should be has perhaps less influence on what shall be than even the more modest of them realize ...' No book had more influence on twentieth-century attitudes to the English language in Britain than Henry Fowler's Dictionary of Modern English Usage. It rapidly became the standard work of reference for the correct use of English in terms of choice of words, grammar, and style. Much loved for his firm opinions, passion, and dry humour, Fowler has stood the test of time and is still considered the best arbiter of good practice. In this new edition of the original Dictionary, David Crystal goes beyond the popular mythology surrounding Fowler's reputation to retrace his method and arrive at a fresh evaluation of his place in the history of linguistic thought. With a wealth of entertaining examples he looks at Fowler's stated principles and the tensions between his prescriptive and descriptive temperaments. He shows that the Dictionary does a great more than make normative recommendations and express private opinion. In addition he offers a modern perspective on some 300 entries, in which he shows how English has changed since the 1920s. ABOUT THE SERIES: For over 100 years Oxford World's Classics has made available the widest range of literature from around the globe. Each affordable volume reflects Oxford's commitment to scholarship, providing the most accurate text plus a wealth of other valuable features, including expert introductions by leading authorities, helpful notes to clarify the text, up-to-date bibliographies for further study, and much more.

Allen's Dictionary of English Phrases

Allen's Dictionary of English Phrases Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Robert Allen
Editor: Penguin UK
ISBN: 0141917687
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Allen's Dictionary of English Phrases by Robert Allen Summary

Allen’s Dictionary of English Phrases is the most comprehensive survey of this area of the English language ever undertaken. Taking over 6000 phrases, it explains their meaning, explores their development and gives citations that range from the Venerable Bede to Will Self. Crisply and wittily written, the book is packed with memorable and surprising detail, whether showing that 'salad days' comes from Antony and Cleopatra, that 'flavour of the month' originates in 1940s American ice cream marketing, or even that we’ve been 'calling a spade a spade' since the sixteenth century. Allen’s Dictionary of English Phrases is part of the Penguin Reference Library and draws on over 70 years of experience in bringing reliable, useful and clear information to millions of readers around the world – making knowledge everybody’s property.

The Oxford Handbook of English Grammar

The Oxford Handbook of English Grammar Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Bas Aarts,Jill Bowie,Gergana Popova
Editor: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 019107120X
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The Oxford Handbook of English Grammar by Bas Aarts,Jill Bowie,Gergana Popova Summary

This handbook provides an authoritative, critical survey of current research and knowledge in the grammar of the English language. Following an introduction from the editors, the volume's expert contributors explore a range of core topics in English grammar, beginning with issues in grammar writing and methodology. Chapters in part II then examine the various theoretical approaches to grammar, such as cognitive, constructional, and generative approaches, followed by the chapters in part III, which comprehensively cover the different subdomains of grammar, including compounds, phrase structure, clause types, tense and aspect, and information structure. Part IV offers coverage of the relationship between grammar and other fields - lexis, phonology, meaning, and discourse - while the concluding part of the book investigates grammatical change over time, regional variation, and genre and literary variation. The handbook's wide-ranging coverage will appeal to researchers and students of English language and linguistics from undergraduate level upwards.

A Sociolinguistic History of British English Lexicography

A Sociolinguistic History of British English Lexicography Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Heming Yong,Jing Peng
Editor: Routledge
ISBN: 1000429482
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A Sociolinguistic History of British English Lexicography by Heming Yong,Jing Peng Summary

A Sociolinguistic History of British English Lexicography traces the evolution of British English dictionaries from their earliest roots to the end of the 20th century by adopting both sociolinguistic and lexicographical perspectives. It attempts to break out of the limits of the dictionary-ontology paradigm and set British English dictionary-making and research against a broader background of socio-cultural observations, thus relating the development of English lexicography to changes in English, accomplishments in English linguistics, social and cultural progress, and advances in science and technology. It unfolds a vivid, coherent and complete picture of how English dictionary-making develops from its archetype to the prescriptive, the historical, the descriptive and finally to the cognitive model, how it interrelates to the course of the development of a nation's culture and the historical growth of its lexicographical culture, as well as how English lexicography spreads from British English to other major regional varieties through inheritance, innovation and self-perfection. This volume will be of interest to students and academics of English lexicography, English linguistics and world English lexicography.

The Handbook of English Linguistics

The Handbook of English Linguistics Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Bas Aarts,April McMahon,Lars Hinrichs
Editor: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119540585
FileSize: 585kb
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The Handbook of English Linguistics by Bas Aarts,April McMahon,Lars Hinrichs Summary

Second edition of this popular Handbook bringing together stimulating discussions of core English linguistics topics in a single, authoritative volume—includes numerous new and thoroughly updated chapters The second edition of the popular Handbook of English Linguistics brings together stimulating discussions of the core topics in English linguistics in a single, authoritative volume. Written by an international team of experts, the chapters cover syntax, methodology, phonetics and phonology, lexis and morphology, variation, stylistics, and discourse, and also provide discussions of theoretical and descriptive research in the field. The revised edition includes new and updated chapters on English Corpus Linguistics, experimental approaches, complements and adjuncts, English phonology and morphology, lexicography, and more. In-depth yet accessible chapters introduce key areas of English linguistics, discuss relevant research, and suggest future research directions. An important academic contribution to the field, this book: Presents thirty-two in-depth, yet accessible, chapters that discuss new research findings across the field, written by both established and emerging scholars from around the world Builds upon the very successful first edition, published in 2006 Incorporates new trends in English linguistics, including digital research methods and theoretical advances in all subfields Suggests future research directions The Handbook of English Linguistics, 2nd Edition is an essential reference work for researchers and students working in the field of English language and linguistics.

Dynamics of Language Changes

Dynamics of Language Changes Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Keith Allan
Editor: Springer Nature
ISBN: 9811564302
FileSize: 408kb
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Dynamics of Language Changes by Keith Allan Summary

This book explores the dynamics of language changes from sociolinguistic and historical linguistic perspectives. With in-depth case studies from all around the world, it uses diverse approaches across sociolinguistics and historical linguistics to answer questions such as: How and why do language changes begin?; how do language changes spread?; and how can they ultimately be explained? Each chapter explores a different component of language change, including typology, syntax, morphology, phonology, semantics, lexicology, discourse strategies, diachronic change, synchronic change, how the deafblind modify sign language, and the accommodation of language to song. This book presents a comprehensive analysis of the dynamics of language change over time, simultaneously advancing current research and suggesting new directions in sociolinguistic and historical linguistic approaches.

English Traditional Grammars

English Traditional Grammars Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Gerhard Leitner
Editor: John Benjamins Publishing
ISBN: 9027277699
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English Traditional Grammars by Gerhard Leitner Summary

Until recently grammars of English have received surprisingly little scholarly attention, while a lot of research is done on dictionaries. It appears, however, that learners of English shy away from modern grammars and prefer to consult dictionaries or traditional reference grammars instead. This raises questions as to the relationship between theoretical linguistics and grammar writing and calls for more research into this area, especially for the period from 1800 onwards, which was crucial for the development of grammatical thinking and its acceptance (or rejection) at all educational levels today.This volume brings together work from international experts on the historiography of English grammar writing who deal with a variety of topics grouped into three overlapping sections: I. Native Grammars of English, II. Non-native Grammars of English, and III. Grammatical Analyses. The volume includes summaries of the articles and a name index.

A Dictionary of Stylistics

A Dictionary of Stylistics Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Katie Wales
Editor: Routledge
ISBN: 1317862066
FileSize: 321kb
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A Dictionary of Stylistics by Katie Wales Summary

Reviews of the first edition: '...a work of high seriousness...manna from rhetorical heaven for students and researchers with a lot of hard graft ahead of them... '(English Today) '...an impressive single-author reference work... '(English) '...Not only is this volume indispensible for anyone, students or academics, working in any field related to stylistics, it is, like all the best dictionaries, a very good read...' (Le Lingue del Mondo) Over the past ten years there have been striking advances in stylistics. These have given rise to new terms and to revised thinking of concepts and re-definitions of terms. A Dictionary of Stylistics, 2nd Edition contains over 600 alphabeticlly listed entries: fully revised since the first and second editions, it contains many new entries. Drawing material from stylistics and a range of related disciplines such as sociolinguistics, cognitive linguistics and traditional rhetoric, the revised Third Edition provides a valuable reference work for students and teachers of stylistics, as well as critical discourse analysis and literary criticism. At the same time it provides a general picture of the nature, insights and methodologies of stylistics. As well as explaining terminology clearly and concisely, this edition contains a subject index for further ease of use. With numerous quotations; explanations for many basic terms from grammar and rhetoric; and a comprehensive bibliography, this is a unique reference work and handbook for stylistic and textual analysis. Students and teachers at secondary and tertiary levels of English language and literature or English as a foreign or second language, and of linguistics, will find it an invaluable source of information. Katie Wales is Professor of Modern English Language, University of Leeds and Dean of Learning and Teaching in the Faculty of Arts.

English Usage Guides

English Usage Guides Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Ingrid Tieken-Boon van Ostade
Editor: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0192535714
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English Usage Guides by Ingrid Tieken-Boon van Ostade Summary

This volume explores both historical and current issues in English usage guides or style manuals. Guides of this sort have a long history: while Fowler's Modern English Usage (1926) is one of the best known, the first English usage guide was published in the UK in 1770, and the first in the US in 1847. Today, new titles come out nearly every year, while older works are revised and reissued. Remarkably, however, the kind of usage problems that have been addressed over the years are very much the same, and attitudes towards them are slow to change - but they do change. The chapters in this book look at how and why these guides are compiled, and by whom; what sort of advice they contain; how they differ from grammars and dictionaries; how attitudes to usage change; and why institutions such as the BBC need their own style guide. The volume will appeal not only to researchers and students in sociolinguistics, but also to general readers with an interest in questions of usage and prescriptivism, language professionals such as teachers and editors, and language policy makers.

A Dictionary of Varieties of English

A Dictionary of Varieties of English Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Raymond Hickey
Editor: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 111858404X
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A Dictionary of Varieties of English by Raymond Hickey Summary

A Dictionary of Varieties of English presents a comprehensive listing of the distinctive dialects and forms of English spoken throughout the contemporary world. Provides an invaluable introduction and guide to current research trends in the field Includes definitions both for the varieties of English and regions they feature, and for terms and concepts derived from a linguistic analysis of these varieties Explores important research issues including the transportation of dialects of English, the rise of ‘New Englishes’, sociolinguistic investigations of various English-speaking locales, and the study of language contact and change. Reflects our increased awareness of global forms of English, and the advances made in the study of varieties of the language in recent decades Creates an invaluable, informative resource for students and scholars alike, spanning the rich and diverse linguistic varieties of the most widely accepted language of international communication

Processes of Change

Processes of Change Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Sandra Jansen,Lucia Siebers
Editor: John Benjamins Publishing Company
ISBN: 9027262101
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Processes of Change by Sandra Jansen,Lucia Siebers Summary

The present volume brings together leading scholars studying language change from a variety of sociolinguistic perspectives, complementing and enriching the existing literature by providing readers with a kaleidoscopic perspective of aspects of change in English from around 1700 until the present day. The volume presents a collection of in-depth studies on a broad spectrum of phonetic, lexical, grammatical and discourse variation, drawing on historical corpora, dictionaries, metalinguistic commentary, ego-documents, spoken language and survey data. Apart from advancing our knowledge of processes of language change in varieties of English, including British English, Irish English, Australian English, South African English, American English and Canadian English, the individual chapters contribute to the theoretical debates on variation and change in Late Modern as well as Present-day English.

British Sources of Information

British Sources of Information Pdf/ePub eBook Author: P. Jackson
Editor: Routledge
ISBN: 1135794936
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British Sources of Information by P. Jackson Summary

This comprehensive and versatile reference source will be a most important tool for anyone wishing to seek out information on virtually any aspect of British affairs, life and culture. The resources of a detailed bibliography, directory and journals listing are combined in this single volume, forming a unique guide to a multitude of diverse topics - British politics, government, society, literature, thought, arts, economics, history and geography. Academic subjects as taught in British colleges and universities are covered, with extensive reading lists of books and journals and sources of information for each discipline, making this an invaluable manual.

Bryson's Dictionary of Troublesome Words

Bryson's Dictionary of Troublesome Words Pdf/ePub eBook Author: William Bryson
Editor: Anchor Canada
ISBN: 0385679963
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Bryson's Dictionary of Troublesome Words by William Bryson Summary

One of the English language's most skilled and beloved writers guides us all towards precise, mistake-free usage. In the middle 1980s Bill Bryson was a copy editor for the London Times with the brash idea that he could fill a hole in the British book market for a concise, accessible, handy guide to proper usage. A complete unknown, he nonetheless sold Penguin Books on the idea, and the result was The Penguin Dictionary of Troublesome Words, which sold decently enough on both sides of the Atlantic. Now, fifteen years later, Bill Bryson has become, well, Bill Bryson -- and his terrifically useful little book has been revised, updated and Americanized to become Bryson's Dictionary of Troublesome Words. Precise, prescriptive, sometimes (like its author) amusingly prickly, this book belongs on the desk of every person who cares enough about our language not to maul or misuse or distort it. Move over, Strunk and White.

Describing Prescriptivism

Describing Prescriptivism Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Ingrid Tieken-Boon van Ostade
Editor: Routledge
ISBN: 0429558147
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Describing Prescriptivism by Ingrid Tieken-Boon van Ostade Summary

Describing Prescriptivism provides a topical and thought-provoking analysis of linguistic prescriptivism in British and American English, from a historical as well as present-day perspective. Focusing on usage guides and usage problems, the book takes a three-fold approach to present an in-depth analysis of the topic, featuring: a detailed study of the advice provided in usage guides over the years; an authoritative comparison of this advice with actual usage as recorded in British and American corpora, including the HUGE (Hyper Usage Guide of English) database – developed specifically to enable this line of study – as well as more mainstream corpora such as COCA, COHA and the BNC; a close analysis of the attitudes to particular usage problems among the general public, based on surveys distributed online through the "Bridging the Unbridgeable" research project’s blog.* With extensive case studies to illustrate and support claims throughout, this comprehensive study is key reading for students and researchers of prescriptivism, the history of English and sociolinguistics. *Found at https://bridgingtheunbridgeable.com/

Dictionary of Lexicography

Dictionary of Lexicography Pdf/ePub eBook Author: R. R. K. Hartmann,Gregory James
Editor: Routledge
ISBN: 113476829X
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Dictionary of Lexicography by R. R. K. Hartmann,Gregory James Summary

Dictionaries are among the most frequently consulted books, yet we know remarkably little about them. Who makes them? Where do they come from? What do they offer? How can we evaluate them? The Dictionary of Lexicography provides answers to all these questions and addresses a wide range of issues: * the traditions of dictionary-making * the different types of dictionaries and other reference works (such as thesaurus, encyclopedia, atlas and telephone directory) * the principles and concerns of lexicographers and other reference professionals * the standards of dictionary criticism and dictionary use. It is both a professional handbook and an easy-to-use reference work. This is the first time that the subject has been covered in such a comprehensive manner in the form of a reference book. All articles are self-contained, cross-referenced and uniformly structured. The whole is an up-to-date and forward-looking survey of lexicography.

The Language of the Law

The Language of the Law Pdf/ePub eBook Author: David Mellinkoff
Editor: Wipf and Stock Publishers
ISBN: 1592446906
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The Language of the Law by David Mellinkoff Summary

This book tells what the language of the law is, how it got that way and how it works out in the practice. The emphasis is more historical than philosophical, more practical than pedantic.

The Lexicographer's Dilemma

The Lexicographer's Dilemma Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Jack Lynch
Editor: Bloomsbury Publishing USA
ISBN: 0802719635
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The Lexicographer's Dilemma by Jack Lynch Summary

In its long history, the English language has had many lawmakers--those who have tried to regulate or otherwise organize the way we speak. Proper Words in Proper Places offers the first narrative history of these endeavors and shows clearly that what we now regard as the only "correct" way to speak emerged out of specific historical and social conditions over the course of centuries. As historian Jack Lynch has discovered, every rule has a human history and the characters peopling his narrative are as interesting for their obsession as for their erudition: the sharp-tongued satirist Jonathan Swift, who called for a government-sponsored academy to issue rulings on the language; the polymath Samuel Johnson, who put dictionaries on a new footing; the eccentric Hebraist Robert Lowth, the first modern to understand the workings of biblical poetry; the crackpot linguist John Horne Tooke, whose bizarre theories continue to baffle scholars; the chemist and theologian Joseph Priestly, whose political radicalism prompted violent riots; the ever-crotchety Noah Webster, who worked to Americanize the English language; the long-bearded lexicographer James A. H. Murray, who devoted his life to a survey of the entire language in the Oxford English Dictionary; and the playwright George Bernard Shaw, who worked without success to make English spelling rational. Grammatical "rules" or "laws" are not like the law of gravity, or even laws against murder and theft--they're more like rules of etiquette, made by fallible people and subject to change. Witty, smart, full of passion for the world's language, Proper Words in Proper Places will entertain and educate in equal measure.

Language Prescription

Language Prescription Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Prof. Don Chapman,Jacob D. Rawlins
Editor: Multilingual Matters
ISBN: 1788928393
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Language Prescription by Prof. Don Chapman,Jacob D. Rawlins Summary

This book is a detailed examination of social connections to language evaluation with a specific focus on the values associated with both prescriptivism and descriptivism. The chapters, written by authors from many different linguistic and national backgrounds, use a variety of approaches and methods to discuss values in linguistic prescriptivism. In particular, the chapters break down the traditional binary approaches that characterize prescriptive discourse to create a view of the complex phenomena associated with prescriptivism and the values of those who practice it. Most importantly, this volume continues serious academic conversations about prescriptivism and lays the foundation for continued exploration.

The Chicago Guide to Grammar, Usage, and Punctuation

The Chicago Guide to Grammar, Usage, and Punctuation Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Bryan A. Garner
Editor: Univ of Chicago+ORM
ISBN: 022619129X
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The Chicago Guide to Grammar, Usage, and Punctuation by Bryan A. Garner Summary

The authoritative guide to using the English language effectively, from “the greatest writer on grammar and usage that this country has ever produced” (David Yerkes, Columbia University). The author of The Chicago Manual of Style’s popular “Grammar and Usage” chapter, Bryan A. Garner is renowned for explaining the vagaries of English with absolute precision and utmost clarity. With The Chicago Guide to Grammar, Usage, and Punctuation, he has written the definitive guide for writers who want their prose to be both memorable and correct. Garner describes standard literary English—the forms that mark writers and speakers as educated users of the language. He also offers historical context for understanding the development of these forms. The section on grammar explains how the canonical parts of speech came to be identified, while the section on syntax covers the nuances of sentence patterns as well as both traditional sentence diagramming and transformational grammar. The usage section provides an unprecedented trove of empirical evidence in the form of Google Ngrams, diagrams that illustrate the changing prevalence of specific terms over decades and even centuries of English literature. Garner also treats punctuation and word formation, and concludes the book with an exhaustive glossary of grammatical terms and a bibliography of suggested further reading and references. The Chicago Guide to Grammar, Usage, and Punctuation is a magisterial work, the culmination of Garner’s lifelong study of the English language. The result is a landmark resource that will offer clear guidelines to students, writers, and editors alike. “[A manual] for those of us laboring to produce expository prose: nonfiction books, journalistic articles, memorandums, business letters. The conservatism of his advice pushes you to consider audience and occasion, so that you will understand when to follow convention and when you can safely break it.”—John E. McIntyre, Baltimore Sun

The Oxford History of English Lexicography

The Oxford History of English Lexicography Pdf/ePub eBook Author: A. P. Cowie
Editor: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191558079
FileSize: 437kb
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The Oxford History of English Lexicography by A. P. Cowie Summary

These substantial volumes present the fullest account yet published of the lexicography of English from its origins in medieval glosses, through its rapid development in the eighteenth century, to a fully-established high-tech industry that is as reliant as ever on learning and scholarship. The history covers dictionaries of English and its national varieties, including American English, with numerous references to developments in Europe and elsewhere which have influenced the course of English lexicography. Part one of Volume I explores the early development of glosses and bilingual and multilingual dictionaries and examines their influence on lexicographical methods and ideas. Part two presents a systematic history of monolingual dictionaries of English and includes extensive chapters on Johnson, Webster and his successors in the USA, and the OED. It also contains descriptions of the development of dictionaries of national and regional varieties, and of Old and Middle English, and concludes with an account of the computerization of the OED. The specialized dictionaries described in Volume II include dictionaries of science, dialects, synonyms, etymology, pronunciation, slang and cant, quotations, phraseology, and personal and place names. This volume also includes an account of the inception and development of dictionaries developed for particular users, especially foreign learners of English. The Oxford History of English Lexicography unites scholarship with readability. It provides a unique and accessible reference for scholars and professional lexicographers and offers a series of fascinating encounters with the men and women involved over the centuries in the making of works of profound national and linguistic importance.

Transatlantic Perspectives on Late Modern English

Transatlantic Perspectives on Late Modern English Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Marina Dossena
Editor: John Benjamins Publishing Company
ISBN: 9027268878
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Transatlantic Perspectives on Late Modern English by Marina Dossena Summary

The volume presents an innovative approach to studies in Late Modern English by giving attention to variation and change in varieties of English on both sides of the Atlantic. As new corpora become available, scholarly interests broaden their horizons to encompass varieties, the history of which has only just begun to be investigated, and which are likely to yield significant findings. The contributors, whose long experience in the field of English historical linguistics ensures in-depth investigations, employ state-of-the-art tools for the analysis of specific phenomena and to set these in the light of a more encompassing framework concerning different text types and sociolinguistic considerations. While usage guides and dictionaries prove remarkable in their contribution to the definition of what is (not) acceptable in specific social circles, the language of ordinary users also takes centre stage in studies of correspondence, journals and travelogues. The volume is expected to appeal to scholars and students interested in the linguistic history of English as seen in contexts on which – until now – relatively little light has been shed.

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