Elementary Cosmology

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Elementary Cosmology

Elementary Cosmology Pdf/ePub eBook Author:
Editor: Morgan & Claypool Publishers
ISBN: 1681741644
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Elementary Cosmology by Summary

Cosmology is the study of the origin, size, and evolution of the entire universe. Every culture has developed a cosmology, whether it be based on religious, philosophical, or scientific principles. In this book, the evolution of the scientific understanding of the Universe in Western tradition is traced from the early Greek philosophers to the most modern 21st century view. After a brief introduction to the concept of the scientific method, the first part of the book describes the way in which detailed observations of the Universe, first with the naked eye and later with increasingly complex modern instruments, ultimately led to the development of the "Big Bang" theory. The second part of the book traces the evolution of the Big Bang including the very recent observation that the expansion of the Universe is itself accelerating with time.

Methodological issues in exploring students’ ideas about elementary astronomy

Methodological issues in exploring students’ ideas about elementary astronomy Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Nikolaos Fotou
Editor: GRIN Verlag
ISBN: 3668168520
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Methodological issues in exploring students’ ideas about elementary astronomy by Nikolaos Fotou Summary

Scientific Essay from the year 2011 in the subject Pedagogy - Common Didactics, Educational Objectives, Methods, grade: Distinction, University of Leeds (School of Education/Centre for Studies in Science and Mathematics Education), language: English, abstract: This study investigates the methods and the questions or the tasks used for researching students’ ideas in the domain of elementary cosmology mostly in primary education. Astronomy seems to be fertile and attractive. This is mostly because, in many ways, the scientific perspective of the Earth and relative concepts is contrary to intuition or common-sense and contrary to appearance. For instance, the Sun seems to move on the horizon during daylight hours, but actually it is the Earth that spins on its axes giving that impression. Young students’ developing understanding of the Earth and relative phenomena provides a fascinating natural experiment in the sources of young children's developing scientific knowledge. Most studies in this area involve children’s understanding of the shape of the Earth, the force of gravity and simple astronomical phenomena such as the day/night cycle. In the last forty years, students’ understanding and ideas of scientific phenomena have been of considerable interest to researches in the field of science education. In Mouly’s (1978) words, the aim of a research is to promote progress and enable people to resolve their conflicts. In a similar vein, the purpose of the researches in science education is to ensure maturity and progression of education where lacks exist (Cohen and others, 2000). Nevertheless, in some cases the findings of such studies are not consistent and as a result there is disagreement about whether a lack exists or not. Several researchers have claimed that this inconsistency is related with the research approaches using different methods and reaching different conclusions. Generally speaking, the word method concerns those techniques of eliciting answers to predetermined questions, measuring or recording information, describing a phenomenon and carrying out experiments (Cohen and others, 2000). In this study, the term will be referred to the range of approaches used in educational research to collect data and not for data analysis. This information has been used for interpretation, inference and explanation of children’s ideas. The methods for analysing the data will not be examined here, albeit there is a significant interrelationship between the data collected and the tools or approaches used for their interpretation. Therefore, even this not being the purpose of this study, some weaknesses of the methods used will be mentioned.

Confluence of Cosmology, Massive Neutrinos, Elementary Particles, and Gravitation

Confluence of Cosmology, Massive Neutrinos, Elementary Particles, and Gravitation Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Behram N. Kursunogammalu,Stephan L. Mintz,Arnold Perlmutter
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0306470942
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Confluence of Cosmology, Massive Neutrinos, Elementary Particles, and Gravitation by Behram N. Kursunogammalu,Stephan L. Mintz,Arnold Perlmutter Summary

Justbefore the preliminary programof Orbis Scientiae 1998 went to press the news in physics was suddenly dominated by the discovery that neutrinos are, after all, massive particles. This was predicted by some physicists including Dr. Behram Kusunoglu, who had apaper published on this subject in 1976 in the Physical Review. Massive neutrinos do not necessarily simplify the physics of elementary particles but they do give elementary particle physics a new direction. If the dark matter content ofthe universe turns out to consist ofneutrinos, the fact that they are massive should make an impact on cosmology. Some of the papers in this volume have attempted to provide answers to these questions. We have a long way to go before we find the real reasons for nature’s creation of neutrinos. Another neutrino-related event was the passing of their discoverer, Fredrick Reines: The trustees of the Global Foundation, members of the Orbis Scientiae 1998, dedicate this conference to Fredrick Reines of the University of California at Irvine. The late Professor Reines was a loyal and active member of these series of conferences on the frontiers of physics and cosmology since 1964. He also sewed as one of the trustees of the Global Foundation for the past three years. Professor Reines discovered the most elusive particle, the neutrino, in 1954. We are proud to say that we recognized the importance of this discovery by awarding him the J.

Practical Work in Elementary Astronomy

Practical Work in Elementary Astronomy Pdf/ePub eBook Author: M.G.J. Minnaert
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401034141
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Practical Work in Elementary Astronomy by M.G.J. Minnaert Summary

Cosmology and Elementary Particles

Cosmology and Elementary Particles Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Daniel R Altschuler,José F Nieves,Jaime Ponce de Leon,Marcelo R Ubriaco
Editor: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814555568
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Cosmology and Elementary Particles by Daniel R Altschuler,José F Nieves,Jaime Ponce de Leon,Marcelo R Ubriaco Summary

This is a collection of lectures on topics in cosmology and elementary particles with emphasis on astrophysics. Delivered by prominent scientists, the lectures give up-to-date and comprehensive treatment of the areas covered. Contents:Pulsars: New Celestial Clocks (D Backer)Gravitation and Early Universe Cosmology (J Barrow)Large Scale Structure and Peculiar Motions in the Universe (R Giovanelli)Precision Tests of the Standard Model and Top Quark Physics (W Marciano)Abelian Instantons, Particle Physics and Cosmology (B Ovrut)Probing the Early Universe: Predictions and Tests (D Schramm)Phase Transitions in the Early Universe: Large Scale Structure and Baryogenesis (N Turok)Semionics: A Possible Theory of High Temperature Superconductivity (A Zee)Mapping the Galaxy Distribution in the Southern Hemisphere (L da Costa)Unified Description of Quark and Lepton Mass Matrices (E Ma) Readership: Cosmologists, astrophysicists and astronomists. keywords:

Inflation and Quantum Cosmology

Inflation and Quantum Cosmology Pdf/ePub eBook Author: A.D. Linde
Editor: Elsevier
ISBN: 0323160131
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Inflation and Quantum Cosmology by A.D. Linde Summary

Inflation and Quantum Cosmology discusses the inflationary universe scenario, including the problems of the standard big bang theory and the interplay between elementary-particle theory and cosmology. Inflationary universe models generate many different final perturbation spectra. For example, a model of an inflationary universe, through a casual mechanism, can predict energy density fluctuations leading to the formation of galaxies. The inflationary universe scenario makes possible simultaneous solutions to ten problems related to cosmology and elementary particle physics. One problem concerns the origin of density perturbations that show a picture of the large-scale structure of the universe. Some unexplored possibilities are related to isothermal perturbations generated during inflation or to adiabatic perturbations with a non-flat spectrum. An inflationary universe cosmology also includes stochastic inflation that describes the universe on very large scales—from fragmented mini-universes to another inflationary cosmos. The book also discusses the problem relating to the initial conditions from which an inflationary universe starts. This book is suitable for astronomers, astrophysicists, and professors of cosmology and cosmogenesis.

Galaxy Formation

Galaxy Formation Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Malcolm S. Longair
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3662035715
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Galaxy Formation by Malcolm S. Longair Summary

Written by a well-known astrophysicist, who is also a superbly talented writer, this work deals with the matter and radiation content of the universe, the formation of galaxies, and provides a comprehensive introduction into relativistic astrophysics as needed for the clarification of cosmological ideas.

Cosmology

Cosmology Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Steven Weinberg
Editor: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191523607
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Cosmology by Steven Weinberg Summary

This book is unique in the detailed, self-contained, and comprehensive treatment that it gives to the ideas and formulas that are used and tested in modern cosmological research. It divides into two parts, each of which provides enough material for a one-semester graduate course. The first part deals chiefly with the isotropic and homogeneous average universe; the second part concentrates on the departures from the average universe. Throughout the book the author presents detailed analytic calculations of cosmological phenomena, rather than just report results obtained elsewhere by numerical computation. The book is up to date, and gives detailed accounts of topics such as recombination, microwave background polarization, leptogenesis, gravitational lensing, structure formation, and multifield inflation, that are usually treated superficially if at all in treatises on cosmology. Copious references to current research literature are supplied. Appendices include a brief introduction to general relativity, and a detailed derivation of the Boltzmann equation for photons and neutrinos used in calculations of cosmological evolution. Also provided is an assortment of problems.

From the Universe to the Elementary Particles

From the Universe to the Elementary Particles Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Ulrich Ellwanger
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642243754
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From the Universe to the Elementary Particles by Ulrich Ellwanger Summary

In this book, the author leads the reader, step by step and without any advanced mathematics, to a clear understanding of the foundations of modern elementary particle physics and cosmology. He also addresses current and controversial questions on topics such as string theory. The book contains gentle introductions to the theories of special and general relativity, and also classical and quantum field theory. The essential aspects of these concepts are understood with the help of simple calculations; for example, the force of gravity as a consequence of the curvature of the space-time. Also treated are the Big Bang, dark matter and dark energy, as well as the presently known interactions of elementary particles: electrodynamics, the strong and the weak interactions including the Higgs boson. Finally, the book sketches as yet speculative theories: Grand Unification theories, supersymmetry, string theory and the idea of additional dimensions of space-time. Since no higher mathematical or physics expertise is required, the book is also suitable for college and university students at the beginning of their studies. Hobby astronomers and other science enthusiasts seeking a deeper insight than can be found in popular treatments will also appreciate this unique book.

Introduction to Advanced Astrophysics

Introduction to Advanced Astrophysics Pdf/ePub eBook Author: V. Kourganoff
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400994680
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Introduction to Advanced Astrophysics by V. Kourganoff Summary

The purpose of this textbook is to provide a basic knowledge of the main parts of modern astrophysics for all those starting their studies in this field at the undergraduate level. The reader is supposed to have only a high school training in physics and mathematics. In many respects this Introduction to Advanced Astrophysics could represent a volume of the Berkeley Physics Course. Thus, the primary audience for this work is composed of students in astronomy, physics, mathematics, physical chemistry and engineering. It also includes high school teachers of physics and mathematics. Many amateur astronomers will fmd it quite accessible. In the frame of approximations proper to an introductory textbook, the treatment is quite rigorous. Therefore, it is also expected to provide a firm background for a study of advanced astrophysics on a postgraduate level. A rather severe selection is made here among various aspects of the Universe accessible to modern astronomy. This allows us to go beyond simple information on astronomical phenomena - to be found in popular books - and to insist upon explanations based on modern general physical theories. More precisely, our selection of topics is determined by the following considerations: The study of the solar system (the Moon and the planets) has recently progressed at a tremendous rate. However, the very rich harvest of observations provided by space research is mainly purely descriptive and is perfectly presented in review papers of Scien tific American, Science, Physics Today and similar magazines.

An Introduction to the Science of Cosmology

An Introduction to the Science of Cosmology Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Derek Raine,E.G. Thomas
Editor: CRC Press
ISBN: 1482268450
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An Introduction to the Science of Cosmology by Derek Raine,E.G. Thomas Summary

A thorough introduction to modern ideas on cosmology and on the physical basis of the general theory of relativity, An Introduction to the Science of Cosmology explores various theories and ideas in big bang cosmology, providing insight into current problems. Assuming no previous knowledge of astronomy or cosmology, this book takes you beyond introductory texts to the point where you are able to read and appreciate the scientific literature, which is broadly referenced in the book. The authors present the standard big bang theory of the universe and provide an introduction to current inflationary cosmology, emphasizing the underlying physics without excessive technical detail. The book treats cosmological models without reliance on prior knowledge of general relativity, the necessary physics being introduced in the text as required. It also covers recent observational evidence pointing to an accelerating expansion of the universe. The first several chapters provide an introduction to the topics discussed later in the book. The next few chapters introduce relativistic cosmology and the classic observational tests. One chapter gives the main results of the hot big bang theory. Next, the book presents the inflationary model and discusses the problem of the origin of structure and the correspondingly more detailed tests of relativistic models. Finally, the book considers some general issues raised by expansion and isotropy. A reference section completes the work by listing essential formulae, symbols, and physical constants. Beyond the level of many elementary books on cosmology, An Introduction to the Science of Cosmology encompasses numerous recent developments and ideas in the area. It provides more detailed coverage than many other titles available, and the inclusion of problems at the end of each chapter aids in self study and makes the book suitable for taught courses.

Intersection Between Elementary Particle Physics And Cosmology - Proceedings Of The 1st Jerusalem Winter School For Theoretical Physics

Intersection Between Elementary Particle Physics And Cosmology - Proceedings Of The 1st Jerusalem Winter School For Theoretical Physics Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Tsvi Piran,Steven Weinberg
Editor: World Scientific
ISBN: 9813201797
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Intersection Between Elementary Particle Physics And Cosmology - Proceedings Of The 1st Jerusalem Winter School For Theoretical Physics by Tsvi Piran,Steven Weinberg Summary

The last decade has seen fruitful interactions between elementary particle physics and cosmology. Developments in the theories of broken symmetry, gauge interactions and supersymmetry have opened up new possibilities for the history of the early universe, while astronomical data on cosmic expansion, baryon-entropy ratio, galactic structure and elemental abundances have set constraints on particle theories. The First Jerusalem Winter School aimed at presenting a systematic account of these topics, from the physical and astronomical fundamentals to the latest progress.

Astroparticle Physics

Astroparticle Physics Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Claus Grupen
Editor: Springer Nature
ISBN: 3030273393
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Astroparticle Physics by Claus Grupen Summary

Describes the branch of astronomy in which processes in the universe are investigated with experimental methods employed in particle-physics experiments. After a historical introduction the basics of elementary particles, Explains particle interactions and the relevant detection techniques, while modern aspects of astroparticle physics are described in a chapter on cosmology. Provides an orientation in the field of astroparticle physics that many beginners might seek and appreciate because the underlying physics fundamentals are presented with little mathematics, and the results are illustrated by many diagrams. Readers have a chance to enter this field of astronomy with a book that closes the gap between expert and popular level.

The Little Book of Cosmology

The Little Book of Cosmology Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Lyman Page
Editor: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 0691201692
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The Little Book of Cosmology by Lyman Page Summary

The cutting-edge science that is taking the measure of the universe The Little Book of Cosmology provides a breathtaking look at our universe on the grandest scales imaginable. Written by one of the world's leading experimental cosmologists, this short but deeply insightful book describes what scientists are revealing through precise measurements of the faint thermal afterglow of the Big Bang—known as the cosmic microwave background, or CMB—and how their findings are transforming our view of the cosmos. Blending the latest findings in cosmology with essential concepts from physics, Lyman Page first helps readers to grasp the sheer enormity of the universe, explaining how to understand the history of its formation and evolution in space and time. Then he sheds light on how spatial variations in the CMB formed, how they reveal the age, size, and geometry of the universe, and how they offer a blueprint for the formation of cosmic structure. Not only does Page explain current observations and measurements, he describes how they can be woven together into a unified picture to form the Standard Model of Cosmology. Yet much remains unknown, and this incisive book also describes the search for ever deeper knowledge at the field's frontiers—from quests to understand the nature of neutrinos and dark energy to investigations into the physics of the very early universe.

Questioning the Foundations of Physics

Questioning the Foundations of Physics Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Anthony Aguirre,Brendan Foster,Zeeya Merali
Editor: Springer
ISBN: 3319130455
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Questioning the Foundations of Physics by Anthony Aguirre,Brendan Foster,Zeeya Merali Summary

The essays in this book look at way in which the fundaments of physics might need to be changed in order to make progress towards a unified theory. They are based on the prize-winning essays submitted to the FQXi essay competition “Which of Our Basic Physical Assumptions Are Wrong?”, which drew over 270 entries. As Nobel Laureate physicist Philip W. Anderson realized, the key to understanding nature’s reality is not anything “magical”, but the right attitude, “the focus on asking the right questions, the willingness to try (and to discard) unconventional answers, the sensitive ear for phoniness, self-deception, bombast, and conventional but unproven assumptions.” The authors of the eighteen prize-winning essays have, where necessary, adapted their essays for the present volume so as to (a) incorporate the community feedback generated in the online discussion of the essays, (b) add new material that has come to light since their completion and (c) to ensure accessibility to a broad audience of readers with a basic grounding in physics. The Foundational Questions Institute, FQXi, catalyzes, supports, and disseminates research on questions at the foundations of physics and cosmology, particularly new frontiers and innovative ideas integral to a deep understanding of reality, but unlikely to be supported by conventional funding sources.

Neutrinos, Dark Matter and Co.

Neutrinos, Dark Matter and Co. Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Claus Grupen
Editor: Springer Nature
ISBN: 365832547X
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Neutrinos, Dark Matter and Co. by Claus Grupen Summary

In this essential, Claus Grupen discusses astroparticle physics in a short historical outline and describes the latest results without going into mathematical detail. As an introduction to this new field of research, he gives an overview of what happens in the sky, between stars and between galaxies. By now, many things are quite well understood, but with every solution found, new questions arise - the author also deals with this spectrum of questions with some answers. Today, astroparticle physics is an active, interdisciplinary field of research that includes and combines astronomy, cosmic rays and elementary particle physics. This Springer essential is a translation of the original German 1st edition essentials, Neutrinos, Dunkle Materie und Co. by Claus Grupen, published by Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH, part of Springer Nature in 2021.The translation was done with the help of artificial intelligence (machine translation by the service DeepL.com). A subsequent human revision was done primarily in terms of content, so that the book will read stylistically differently from a conventional translation. Springer Nature works continuously to further the development of tools for the production of books and on the related technologies to support the authors

Inflationary Cosmology

Inflationary Cosmology Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Martin Lemoine,Jérôme Martin,Patrick Peter
Editor: Springer
ISBN: 3540743537
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Inflationary Cosmology by Martin Lemoine,Jérôme Martin,Patrick Peter Summary

Some 25 years after the birth of inflationary cosmology, this volume sets out to provide both an authoritative and pedagogical introduction and review of the current state of the field. Readers learn about the arguments supporting the many different scenarios of cosmic inflation. Articles are written by eminent scientists, many of whom have made pioneering contributions to the field of inflationary cosmology.

Cosmology for the Curious

Cosmology for the Curious Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Delia Perlov,Alex Vilenkin
Editor: Springer
ISBN: 3319570404
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Cosmology for the Curious by Delia Perlov,Alex Vilenkin Summary

This book is a gentle introduction for all those wishing to learn about modern views of the cosmos. Our universe originated in a great explosion – the big bang. For nearly a century cosmologists have studied the aftermath of this explosion: how the universe expanded and cooled down, and how galaxies were gradually assembled by gravity. The nature of the bang itself has come into focus only relatively recently. It is the subject of the theory of cosmic inflation, which was developed in the last few decades and has led to a radically new global view of the universe. Students and other interested readers will find here a non-technical but conceptually rigorous account of modern cosmological ideas - describing what we know, and how we know it. One of the book's central themes is the scientific quest to find answers to the ultimate cosmic questions: Is the universe finite or infinite? Has it existed forever? If not, when and how did it come into being? Will it ever end? The book is based on the undergraduate course taught by Alex Vilenkin at Tufts University. It assumes no prior knowledge of physics or mathematics beyond elementary high school math. The necessary physics background is introduced as it is required. Each chapter includes a list of questions and exercises of varying degree of difficulty.

Cosmology

Cosmology Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Georgios Contopoulos,Dimitrios Kotsakis
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642714641
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Cosmology by Georgios Contopoulos,Dimitrios Kotsakis Summary

From the reviews: "It survives the pitfalls of this fashion-conscious era by pursuing a rigorously independent-minded attitude to contemporary ideas. The level is introductory undergraduate, with rather little mathematics but a strong physical basis. ...The second part, on general relativity and cosmology, provides a good account of modern theoretical ideas, from rotating black holes to Grand Unified Theories and inflation. The third part is an excellent and profound discussion of the fundamental problems of cosmology. For anyone with a philosophical turn of mind this section alone makes the book essential reading." Nature

Quark—Gluon Plasma

Quark—Gluon Plasma Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Bikash Sinha,Santanu Pal,Sibaji Raha
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642752896
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Quark—Gluon Plasma by Bikash Sinha,Santanu Pal,Sibaji Raha Summary

Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) is a state of matter predicted by the theory of strong interactions - Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). The area of QGP lies at the interface of particle physics, field theory, nuclear physics and many-body theory, statistical physics, cosmology and astrophysics. In its brief history (about a decade), QGP has seen a rapid convergence of ideas from these previously diverging disciplines. This volume includes the lectures delivered by eminent specialists to students without prior experience in QGP. Each course thus starts from the basics and takes the students by steps to the current problems. The chapters are self-contained and pedagogic in style. The book may therefore serve as an introduction for advanced graduate students intending to enter this field or for physicists working in other areas. Experts in QGP may also find this volume a handy reference. Specific examples, used to elucidate how theoretical predictions and experimentally accessible quantities may not always correspond to one another, make this book ideal for self-study for beginners. This feature will also make the volume thought-provoking for QGP practitioners.

The First Three Minutes

The First Three Minutes Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Steven Weinberg
Editor: Basic Books
ISBN: 1541603311
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The First Three Minutes by Steven Weinberg Summary

A Nobel Prize-winning physicist explains what happened at the very beginning of the universe, and how we know, in this popular science classic. Our universe has been growing for nearly 14 billion years. But almost everything about it, from the elements that forged stars, planets, and lifeforms, to the fundamental forces of physics, can be traced back to what happened in just the first three minutes of its existence. In this book, Nobel Laureate Steven Weinberg describes in wonderful detail what happened in these first three minutes. It is an exhilarating journey that begins with the Planck Epoch - the earliest period of time in the history of the universe - and goes through Einstein's Theory of Relativity, the Hubble Red Shift, and the detection of the Cosmic Microwave Background. These incredible discoveries all form the foundation for what we now understand as the "standard model" of the origin of the universe. The First Three Minutes examines not only what this model looks like, but also tells the exciting story of the bold thinkers who put it together. Clearly and accessibly written, The First Three Minutes is a modern-day classic, an unsurpassed explanation of where it is that everything really comes from.

The Oxford Handbook of Islamic Philosophy

The Oxford Handbook of Islamic Philosophy Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Khaled El-Rouayheb,Sabine Schmidtke
Editor: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199917396
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The Oxford Handbook of Islamic Philosophy by Khaled El-Rouayheb,Sabine Schmidtke Summary

The study of Islamic philosophy has entered a new and exciting phase in the last few years. Both the received canon of Islamic philosophers and the narrative of the course of Islamic philosophy are in the process of being radically questioned and revised. Most twentieth-century Western scholarship on Arabic or Islamic philosophy has focused on the period from the ninth century to the twelfth. It is a measure of the transformation that is currently underway in the field that, unlike other reference works, the Oxford Handbook has striven to give roughly equal weight to every century, from the ninth to the twentieth. The Handbook is also unique in that its 30 chapters are work-centered rather than person- or theme-centered, in particular taking advantage of recent new editions and translations that have renewed interest and debate around the Islamic philosophical canon. The Oxford Handbook of Islamic Philosophy gives both the advanced student and active scholar in Islamic philosophy, theology, and intellectual history, a strong sense of what a work in Islamic philosophy looks like and a deep view of the issues, concepts, and arguments that are at stake. Most importantly, it provides an up-to-date portrait of contemporary scholarship on Islamic philosophy.

Origin, Structure and Evolution of Galaxies

Origin, Structure and Evolution of Galaxies Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Li Zhi Fang
Editor: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814635642
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Origin, Structure and Evolution of Galaxies by Li Zhi Fang Summary

Contents:The Great Astronomer Guo Shoujing and Gou Shoujing Summer School on Astrophysics (Wang Shouguan)Star Formation (C F McKee, notes by Lin Jian-Yu)The Age of Globular Clusters (P Giannone)Stellar Disks in Early-Type Galaxies (P Goldreich, notes by Huang Siqin)The Luminosity Function of Galaxies (Q Chincarini)The Structure of Dark Matter in Galaxies (J Kormendy, notes by Gao Yu)Cosmic Strings and Fractals in the Distribution of Galaxies (Fang Li Zhi)and other papers Readership: Graduate students and researchers in astrophysics.

Astrophysics at Very High Energies

Astrophysics at Very High Energies Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Felix Aharonian,Lars Bergström,Charles Dermer
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 364236134X
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Astrophysics at Very High Energies by Felix Aharonian,Lars Bergström,Charles Dermer Summary

With the success of Cherenkov Astronomy and more recently with the launch of NASA’s Fermi mission, very-high-energy astrophysics has undergone a revolution in the last years. This book provides three comprehensive and up-to-date reviews of the recent advances in gamma-ray astrophysics and of multi-messenger astronomy. Felix Aharonian and Charles Dermer address our current knowledge on the sources of GeV and TeV photons, gleaned from the precise measurements made by the new instrumentation. Lars Bergström presents the challenges and prospects of astro-particle physics with a particular emphasis on the detection of dark matter candidates. The topics covered by the 40th Saas-Fee Course present the capabilities of current instrumentation and the physics at play in sources of very-high-energy radiation to students and researchers alike. This book will encourage and prepare readers for using space and ground-based gamma-ray observatories, as well as neutrino and other multi-messenger detectors.

The History and Practice of Ancient Astronomy

The History and Practice of Ancient Astronomy Pdf/ePub eBook Author: James Evans
Editor: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199874453
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The History and Practice of Ancient Astronomy by James Evans Summary

The History and Practice of Ancient Astronomy combines new scholarship with hands-on science to bring readers into direct contact with the work of ancient astronomers. While tracing ideas from ancient Babylon to sixteenth-century Europe, the book places its greatest emphasis on the Greek period, when astronomers developed the geometric and philosophical ideas that have determined the subsequent character of Western astronomy. The author approaches this history through the concrete details of ancient astronomical practice. Carefully organized and generously illustrated, the book can teach readers how to do real astronomy using the methods of ancient astronomers. For example, readers will learn to predict the next retrograde motion of Jupiter using either the arithmetical methods of the Babylonians or the geometric methods of Ptolemy. They will learn how to use an astrolabe and how to design sundials using Greek and Roman techniques. The book also contains supplementary exercises and patterns for making some working astronomical instruments, including an astrolabe and an equatorium. More than a presentation of astronomical methods, the book provides a critical look at the evidence used to reconstruct ancient astronomy. It includes extensive excerpts from ancient texts, meticulous documentation, and lively discussions of the role of astronomy in the various cultures. Accessible to a wide audience, this book will appeal to anyone interested in how our understanding of our place in the universe has changed and developed, from ancient times through the Renaissance.

Cosmic Paradoxes

Cosmic Paradoxes Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Julio A Gonzalo
Editor: World Scientific Publishing Company
ISBN: 981450484X
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Cosmic Paradoxes by Julio A Gonzalo Summary

Beginning with the famous Olber's paradox, a number of cosmological paradoxes, such as the missing mass, dark energy, and the baryon-to-photon ratio, have been and are today the subject of many scientific controversies. The Big Bang model, anticipated by Lemaitre in 1927 and reformulated twenty years later by Gamow, Alpher and Herman, is one of the most spectacular successes in the entire history of physics. It remains today surrounded by considerable theoretical speculation without sufficient observational support. This book discusses such paradoxes in depth with physical and logical content and historical perspective, and has not too technical content in order to serve a wide audience.

The Role of Neutrinos, Strings, Gravity, and Variable Cosmological Constant in Elementary Particle Physics

The Role of Neutrinos, Strings, Gravity, and Variable Cosmological Constant in Elementary Particle Physics Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Behram N. Kursunogammalu,Stephan L. Mintz,Arnold Perlmutter
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0306471167
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The Role of Neutrinos, Strings, Gravity, and Variable Cosmological Constant in Elementary Particle Physics by Behram N. Kursunogammalu,Stephan L. Mintz,Arnold Perlmutter Summary

th The 29 International Conference was held as the first one of the millennium at its Fort Lauderdale venue. These conferences began, with High Energy Physics being the main topic, by introducing gradually cosmology into its programs. These proceedings of the 2000 conference reflect the variety of topics and ideas discussed. Our future conferences will be designed somewhat akin to the early Coral Gables Conferences where we shall seek some convergence of ideas. For this reason various committees have been formed from among the participating physicists. The committees and their memberships are listed in these proceedings. We further decided for the first time to include some graduate student participants in our future meetings for which also a committee has already been established. The topics will demonstrate a more activist structure of the Coral Gables Conferences, for example the duality of the gravitational forces and expansion of the universe will be discussed from this point of view since it conveys a convergence to the ideas of quintessence versus the ordinary theory, which are considered as the cause of the expansion of the universe. We further wish to announce that the future conferences will assume a collective organization where several committees as listed in these proceedings will have their input into the conference. We have now introduced new topics and ideas, which referred especially to the attractive and repulsive nature of the gravitational force. These proceedings of the conference contain a variety of topics and ideas.

Sorting Out Paul

Sorting Out Paul Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Chris Albert Wells
Editor: Strategic Book Publishing & Rights Agency
ISBN: 1681812959
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Sorting Out Paul by Chris Albert Wells Summary

This book provides the basis for revising early Roman church history. The second-century confrontations that structured the church were symbolized by Peter, representing the church’s initial Judean legacies, and by Paul signifying the Hellenistic theology. Paul is a key actor whose role cannot be correctly understood without separating the first-century man from his second-century legend. Historical Paul brought to Gentiles a new salvation promise in the name of Jesus, Son of Israel’s Creator God. Legendary Paul belonged to a Christianity that radically departed from the original matrix. Paul posthumously became an apostle to the second-century Hellenistic “heretics” under Marcion’s guidance who rejected the Messiah’s Judean legacy. The “centrist” Christian group, challenged by Marcion, used Peter’s primacy to defend their cause. Winning an important political battle, centrists created a wide anti-heretical front and established the church’s primary Judean orthodoxy. Paul losing the keys to Peter but finally occupying a third of the New Testament resumes the agitated history of the early Roman Church. It comprises an initial layer of Judean-influenced orthodoxy Paul rejected as the least of the apostles, completed by a second layer of Hellenistic-inspired orthodoxy, Paul rehabilitated. The continuing confrontations between Peter and Paul produced important texts, influenced the Gospels, made the church evolve, and falsified church history by introducing traditions that still confuse Christians. Understanding the political battles involved in establishing the Roman Church will help in reading all the texts that went into the Christian Bible with their conflicting ideals.

The Oxford Handbook of German Philosophy in the Nineteenth Century

The Oxford Handbook of German Philosophy in the Nineteenth Century Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Michael N. Forster,Kristin Gjesdal
Editor: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 019106551X
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The Oxford Handbook of German Philosophy in the Nineteenth Century by Michael N. Forster,Kristin Gjesdal Summary

The Oxford Handbook of German Philosophy in the Nineteenth Century is the first collective critical study of this important period in intellectual history. The volume is divided into four parts. The first part explores individual philosophers, including Fichte, Hegel, Schopenhauer, Marx, and Nietzsche, amongst other great thinkers of the period. The second addresses key philosophical movements: Idealism, Romanticism, Neo-Kantianism, and Existentialism. The essays in the third part engage with different areas of philosophy that received particular attention at this time, including philosophy of nature, philosophy of mind, philosophy of language, philosophy of history, and hermeneutics. Finally, the contributors turn to discuss central philosophical topics, from skepticism to mat-erialism, from dialectics to ideas of historical and cultural Otherness, and from the reception of antiquity to atheism. Written by a team of leading experts, this Handbook will be an essential resource for anyone working in the area and will lead the direction of future research.

The Perfume of the Gospel: Jesus' Encounters with Women

The Perfume of the Gospel: Jesus' Encounters with Women Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Calduch Benages Nuria
Editor: Gregorian Biblical BookShop
ISBN: 8878392316
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The Perfume of the Gospel: Jesus' Encounters with Women by Calduch Benages Nuria Summary

The Perfume of the Gospel seeks to present some of Jesus' encounters with women. As the title suggests, some of these are characterized by the presence of perfume, an element charged with connotations and a rich symbolic content, open to many interpretations depending on the context. Women are the protagonists of this book. Jesus openly sides with them and, sharing both their bodily and spiritual pain, generates from within himself a new current of humanity. Thus, he changes the hierarchy of the values proposed by society and transcends cases of discrimination with his loving attitude and through his relations of solidarity and equality with people. The book concludes with an original encounter-not between Jesus and a woman, but rather between Jesus and Sophia.

The day/night cycle and the alteration of seasons. Greek primary school children's conceptions

The day/night cycle and the alteration of seasons. Greek primary school children's conceptions Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Nikolaos Fotou
Editor: GRIN Verlag
ISBN: 3668166250
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The day/night cycle and the alteration of seasons. Greek primary school children's conceptions by Nikolaos Fotou Summary

Master's Thesis from the year 2012 in the subject Pedagogy - Miscellaneous Topics, grade: Distinction, , language: English, abstract: In the last forty years, research in science education has focused on investigating students’ ingenuous and intuitive views across a wide range of scientific domains and ages. The majority of these studies have reported that children form ideas about several physical phenomena at a very early age, before receiving any formal education. These naive views and meanings are initially formed from events that children experience and observe every day in the natural world. As Driver and others pointed out, these ideas usually go against the scientific views and are in conflict with them. Those kinds of students’ perspectives are known as alternative conceptions, preconceptions, alternative frameworks and misconceptions. Research in this domain has, also, offered explanations about the origin of these naive ideas. These explanations could be broadly categorized into two theoretical groups. The first one refers to the Piagetian notion of learning while the other derives from a Vygotskian perspective. Several books have been written regarding differences between Piaget’s points of view about learning and Vygotsky’s ideas. However, as Sjoberg (2007) pointed out, they both can be seen as constructivists. In agreement with this statement, Pass (2004) noted that the two perspectives offer different paths on the way to constructivism. Vygotsky has placed greater emphasis in the social and cultural factors, whereas Piaget believed that knowledge is constructed from experiences as the individual gradually grows and develops. Thus, for the latter constructivist view of learning is the result of natural and spontaneous knowledge (personal constructivism, Piaget, 1960), while the former perceives it as a social interaction. The majority of studies have been based on these two theories of learning. In the present study, these two viewpoints are adopted. According to these approaches, individuals construct their own ideas and understandings from inputs which have as a result the form of a wide range of conceptions. As Vosniadou and Brewer (1987) argued, knowledge is acquired and restructured when naive ideas encounter dissimilar and, in some cases, competing views. Students usually confront such conflict situations in their everyday life when observing nature and discussing with their peers or when asked to deal with different ideas in classroom settings.

Jesus: God, Man or Party Label? The Dead Sea Scroll's Messiah Code

Jesus: God, Man or Party Label? The Dead Sea Scroll's Messiah Code Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Chris Albert Wells
Editor: Strategic Book Publishing
ISBN: 1618978179
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Jesus: God, Man or Party Label? The Dead Sea Scroll's Messiah Code by Chris Albert Wells Summary

Intrigue. Politics. Lies. Power struggle. Sound like a thriller? It's the Bible. In Jesus: God, Man or Party Label?, Chris Albert Wells argues that the interpretation of the Gospels we have been taught as Truth ignores a bitter battle of intra-community conflicts and strategies. To discover the nature of the initial split, Wells encourages us to give a new look at the Essene Dead Sea Scroll Messiahs and then to Northern Syria, where the first Gospels were written in a community called Essene before being called Christian. The reader will discover here the background that ultimately produced the Gospels and what they really meant to those who wrote them. Within this community context, Jesus will be just as alien to established Church traditions as to modern historical portrayals or mythical castings forwarded by scholarly textual criticism. Wells challenges us to question everything we have been told, and to understand the story of Jesus in an entirely new light.

America's Working Man

America's Working Man Pdf/ePub eBook Author: David Halle
Editor: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 022622936X
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America's Working Man by David Halle Summary

“An unusually deep and wide-ranging study” by a sociologist who spent years listening to and living among workers at a New Jersey chemical plant (Journal of American Studies). Over a period of six years during the late 1970s, at factory and warehouse, at the tavern across the road, in their homes and union meetings, on fishing trips and social outings, David Halle talked and listened to workers of an automated chemical plant in New Jersey’s industrial heartland—white, male, and mostly Catholic. He has emerged with an unusually comprehensive and convincingly realistic picture of blue-collar life in America during this era. Throughout the book, Halle illustrates his analysis with excerpts of workers’ views on everything from strikes, class consciousness, politics, job security, and toxic chemicals to marriage, betting on horses, God, home-ownership, drinking, adultery, the Super Bowl, and life after death. Halle challenges the stereotypes of the blue-collar mentality and provides a detailed, in-depth portrait of one community of workers at a time when it was relatively affluent and secure. “Absorbing reading.”—Business Week

The Big Bang and Other Explosions in Nuclear and Particle Astrophysics

The Big Bang and Other Explosions in Nuclear and Particle Astrophysics Pdf/ePub eBook Author: David N Schramm
Editor: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814501379
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The Big Bang and Other Explosions in Nuclear and Particle Astrophysics by David N Schramm Summary

This volume of important papers by one the world's leading astrophysicists provides a sweeping survey of the incisive and exciting applications of nuclear and particle physics to a wide range of problems in astrophysics and cosmology. The prime focus of the book is on Big Bang cosmology and the role of primordial nucleosynthesis in establishing the modern consensus on the Big Bang. This leads into the connection of cosmology to particle physics and the constraints put on various elementary particles by astrophysical arguments. Big Bang Nucleosynthesis has also led to the argument for nonbaryonic dark matter and is thus related to the major problem in physical cosmology today, namely, structure formation. The nuclear-particle interface with astrophysics also extends to the other topics of major interest such as the age of the universe, cosmic rays, supernovae, and solar neutrinos, each of which will be discussed in some detail. Each section contains historical papers, current papers, and frequently a popular article on the subject which provides an overview of the topic. This volume is testimony to the success of the integration of nuclear and particle physics with astrophysics and cosmology, and to the ingenuity of the work in this area which has earned the author numerous prestigious awards. The book, which is accessible to beginning graduate students, should be of particular interest to researchers and students in astronomy, astrophysics, cosmology and gravitation, and also in high energy and nuclear physics. Contents:Part A: Basic Big Bang CosmologyPart B: Primordial Nucleosynthesis:Standard ModelDeuterium and Baryon DensityHeliumLithiumCosmological Neutrino CountingAstrophysical Constraints on Particle PropertiesPart C: Other Cosmological Topics:The Very Early UniverseThe Quark-Hadron TransitionDark Matter and Cosmic Structure FormationStructure Formation ContinuedNucleochronologyPart D: Non-Cosmological Topics:Cosmic RaysGalactic EvolutionColliding Neutron Stars and Other ExoticaSolar Neutrinos Readership: Researchers and graduate students in astronomy, astrophysics, cosmology and gravitation, high energy physics and nuclear physics. keywords:

Axions

Axions Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Markus Kuster,Georg Raffelt,Berta Beltrán
Editor: Springer
ISBN: 3540735186
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Axions by Markus Kuster,Georg Raffelt,Berta Beltrán Summary

Axions are peculiar hypothetical particles that could both solve the CP problem of quantum chromodynamics and at the same time account for the dark matter of the universe. Based on a series of lectures by world experts in this field held at CERN (Geneva), this volume provides a pedagogical introduction to the theory, cosmology and astrophysics of these fascinating particles and gives an up-to-date account of the status and prospect of ongoing and planned experimental searches.

Immanent Transcendence

Immanent Transcendence Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Patrice Haynes
Editor: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1441150862
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Immanent Transcendence by Patrice Haynes Summary

Over the last twenty years materialist thinkers in the continental tradition have increasingly emphasized the category of immanence. Yet the turn to immanence has not meant the wholesale rejection of the concept of transcendence, but rather its reconfiguration in immanent or materialist terms: an immanent transcendence. Through an engagement with the work of Deleuze, Irigaray and Adorno, Patrice Haynes examines how the notion of immanent transcendence can help articulate a non-reductive materialism by which to rethink politics, ethics and theology in exciting new ways. However, she argues that contrary to what some might expect, immanent accounts of matter and transcendence are ultimately unable to do justice to material finitude. Indeed, Haynes concludes by suggesting that a theistic understanding of divine transcendence offers ways to affirm fully material immanence, thus pointing towards the idea of a theological materialism.

A New Critical History of Old English Literature

A New Critical History of Old English Literature Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Stanley B. Greenfield,Daniel G. Calder
Editor: NYU Press
ISBN: 0814732623
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A New Critical History of Old English Literature by Stanley B. Greenfield,Daniel G. Calder Summary

Anglo-Saxon prose and poetry is, without question, the major literary achievement of the early Middle Ages (c. 700-1100). In no other vernacular language does such a vast store of verbal treasures exist for so extended a period of time. For twenty years the definitive guide to that literature has been Stanley B. Greenfield's 1965 Critical History of Old English Literature. Now this classic has been extensively revised and updated to make it more valuable than ever to both the student and scholar.

Anglo-Latin Literature

Anglo-Latin Literature Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Michael Lapidge
Editor: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1441101055
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Anglo-Latin Literature by Michael Lapidge Summary

The Latin literature of Anglo-Saxon England remains poorly understood. No bibliography of the subject exists. No comprehensive and authoritative history of Anglo-Latin literature has ever been written. It is only in recent years, largely through the essays collected in the present volumes, that the outline and intrinsic interest of the field have been clarified. Indeed, until a comprehensive history of the period is written, these collected essays offer the only reliable guide to the subject. The essays in the first volume are concerned with the earliest period of literary activity in England. Following a general essay which surveys the field as a whole, the essays range from the arrival of Theodore and Hadrian, through Aldhelm and Bede, to Aediluulf.

Procyon

Procyon Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Vincent H. Elfrey
Editor: Author House
ISBN: 9781452054810
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Procyon by Vincent H. Elfrey Summary

Michael is a dreamer reaching for the stars. Procyon, a German Shepherd, is Michael's best friend. Living so happily on his parent's farm Michael was quite unprepared for the stars to reach back. Everything in his placid life was about to change forever. Even Michael couldn't have dreamed that he would be locked into a life and death struggle with forces beyond his reach, yet as close as his dog, Procyon. Michael and his companion unwittingly set out to unravel the secrets hidden within thier own DNA that could expose a plot so sinister that even the opposing forces would be shocked. Procyon is a story of survival, faith, and love.

Crockett Johnson and Ruth Krauss

Crockett Johnson and Ruth Krauss Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Philip Nel
Editor: Univ. Press of Mississippi
ISBN: 1628468203
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Crockett Johnson and Ruth Krauss by Philip Nel Summary

Crockett Johnson (born David Johnson Leisk, 1906-1975) and Ruth Krauss (1901-1993) were a husband-and-wife team that created such popular children's books as The Carrot Seed and How to Make an Earthquake. Separately, Johnson created the enduring children's classic Harold and the Purple Crayon and the groundbreaking comic strip Barnaby. Krauss wrote over a dozen children's books illustrated by others, and pioneered the use of spontaneous, loose-tongued kids in children's literature. Together, Johnson and Krauss's style--whimsical writing, clear and minimalist drawing, and a child's point-of-view--is among the most revered and influential in children's literature and cartooning, inspiring the work of Maurice Sendak, Charles M. Schulz, Chris Van Allsburg, and Jon Scieszka. This critical biography examines their lives and careers, including their separate achievements when not collaborating. Using correspondence, sketches, contemporary newspaper and magazine accounts, archived and personal interviews, author Philip Nel draws a compelling portrait of a couple whose output encompassed children's literature, comics, graphic design, and the fine arts. Their mentorship of now-famous illustrator Maurice Sendak (Where the Wild Things Are) is examined at length, as is the couple's appeal to adult contemporaries such as Duke Ellington and Dorothy Parker. Defiantly leftist in an era of McCarthyism and Cold War paranoia, Johnson and Krauss risked collaborations that often contained subtly rendered liberal themes. Indeed, they were under FBI surveillance for years. Their legacy of considerable success invites readers to dream and to imagine, drawing paths that take them anywhere they want to go.

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