Equilibrium

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Equilibrium Between Phases of Matter

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ISBN: 140206408X
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Equilibrium Between Phases of Matter by Summary

The first volume of this work is organized in three levels, so that the portion and importance of thermodynamics and mathematics increase from level to level. The ground level shows that basics of phase equilibria can be understood without thermodynamics provided the concept of chemical potential is introduced early. The intermediate level introduces thermodynamics, culminating in the Gibbs energy as the arbiter for equilibrium. At the third level the accent is on binary systems, where one or more phases are solutions of the components. Priority is given throughout to the thermodynamic assessment of experimental data. 200 exercises are included with solutions.

Chemical Equilibrium

Chemical Equilibrium Pdf/ePub eBook Author: William Guenther
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1468421638
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Chemical Equilibrium by William Guenther Summary

* The present work is designed to provide a practical introduction to aqueous equilibrium phenomena for both students and research workers in chemistry, biochemistry, geochemistry, and interdisciplin ary environmental fields. The pedagogical strategy I have adopted makes heavy use of detailed examples of problem solving from real cases arising both in laboratory research and in the study of systems occurring in nature. The procedure starts with mathematically complete equations that will provide valid solutions of equilibrium problems, instead of the traditional approach through approximate concentrations and idealized, infinite-dilution assumptions. There is repeated emphasis on the use of corrected, conditional equilibrium constants and on the checking of numerical results by substitution in complete equations and/or against graphs of species distributions. Graphical methods of calculation and display are used extensively because of their value in clarifying equilibria and in leading one quickly to valid numerical approximations. The coverage of solution equilibrium phenomena is not, however, exhaustively comprehensive. Rather, I have chosen to offer funda mental and rigorous examinations of homogeneous step-equilibria and their interactions with solubility and redox equilibria. Many examples are worked out in detail to demonstrate the use of equi librium calculations and diagrams in various fields of investigation.

Game Equilibrium Models III

Game Equilibrium Models III Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Reinhard Selten
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3662073676
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Game Equilibrium Models III by Reinhard Selten Summary

The four volumes of Game Equilibrium Models present applications of non-cooperative game theory. Problems of strategic interaction arising in biology, economics, political science and the social sciences in general are treated in 42 papers on a wide variety of subjects. Internationally known authors with backgrounds in various disciplines have contributed original research. The reader finds innovative modelling combined with advanced methods of analysis. The four volumes are the outcome of a research year at the Center for Interdisciplinary Studies of the University of Bielefeld. The close interaction of an international interdisciplinary group of researchers has produced an unusual collection of remarkable results of great interest for everybody who wants to be informed on the scope, potential, and future direction of work in applied game theory. Volume III Strategic Bargaining contains ten papers on game equilibrium models of bargaining. All these contributions look at bargaining situations as non-cooperative games. General models of two-person and n-person bargaining are explored.

The Chemical Equilibrium of Gaseous Systems

The Chemical Equilibrium of Gaseous Systems Pdf/ePub eBook Author: R. Holub,P. Vonka
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401017751
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The Chemical Equilibrium of Gaseous Systems by R. Holub,P. Vonka Summary

It is the purpose of this book to present a concise and sufficiently detailed de scription of the present state and possibilities of calculating chemical equilibria of gas mixtures. It is based on a book by one of the authors, published in Czech by the Publishing House Academia in Prague. The rapid development of the topic during the two years since publication of the Czech edition has made it necessary to revise practically all the sections in order to bring them up to the present level of know ledge. One reason for writing this book was the practical requirement of contemporary industry, where a rational utilization of equilibrium composition calculations may provide valuable information concerning processes under study in all stages of their implementation. A second reason was the need of a text-book for studying this part of chemical thermodynamics in the scope as taught at the Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague. These two basic motives determine the overall structure of the book, as well as the proportions and arrangement of the chapters. The book includes fundamental thermodynamic concepts as well as the mathematical apparatus needed to solve the problems involved, care being taken that the discussion should always l!!ad to a practical procedure of performing equilibrium calculations in gas-phase systems of any degree of complexity whatever. Knowledge of chemical thermodynamics on the level of a fundamental university course is assumed.

Understanding Economic Equilibrium

Understanding Economic Equilibrium Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Thomas J. Cunningham,Mike Shaw
Editor: Business Expert Press
ISBN: 1637420390
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Understanding Economic Equilibrium by Thomas J. Cunningham,Mike Shaw Summary

Understanding Economic Equilibrium reveals how all markets fit together, and how we as individuals fit into that bigger picture. Economic agents all over the world are trying to maximize their returns given their efforts, resources, and opportunities. They come together in markets that ultimately allocate goods and services among many competing interests. We can readily see how individual markets behave; it’s more difficult, but exponentially more important, to recognize the general equilibrium across all markets. Disturbances in one market have implications for others. These interrelationships are particularly important to understand when policy changes are being considered where actions in one market will impose changes on other markets, and not always in obvious or pleasant ways. Understanding Economic Equilibrium reveals how all markets fit together, and how we as individuals fit into that bigger picture.

Equilibrium Problems and Applications

Equilibrium Problems and Applications Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Gábor Kassay,Vicențiu Rădulescu
Editor: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128110309
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Equilibrium Problems and Applications by Gábor Kassay,Vicențiu Rădulescu Summary

Equilibrium Problems and Applications develops a unified variational approach to deal with single-valued, set-valued and quasi-equilibrium problems. The authors promote original results in relationship with classical contributions to the field of equilibrium problems. The content evolved in the general setting of topological vector spaces and it lies at the interplay between pure and applied nonlinear analysis, mathematical economics, and mathematical physics. This abstract approach is based on tools from various fields, including set-valued analysis, variational and hemivariational inequalities, fixed point theory, and optimization. Applications include models from mathematical economics, Nash equilibrium of non-cooperative games, and Browder variational inclusions. The content is self-contained and the book is mainly addressed to researchers in mathematics, economics and mathematical physics as well as to graduate students in applied nonlinear analysis. A rigorous mathematical analysis of Nash equilibrium type problems, which play a central role to describe network traffic models, competition games or problems arising in experimental economics Develops generic models relevant to mathematical economics and quantitative modeling of game theory, aiding economists to understand vital material without having to wade through complex proofs Reveals a number of surprising interactions among various equilibria topics, enabling readers to identify a common and unified approach to analysing problem sets Illustrates the deep features shared by several types of nonlinear problems, encouraging readers to develop further this unifying approach from other viewpoints into economic models in turn

Equilibrium Statistical Physics

Equilibrium Statistical Physics Pdf/ePub eBook Author: M. Baus,Carlos F. Tejero
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540746323
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Equilibrium Statistical Physics by M. Baus,Carlos F. Tejero Summary

This is a textbook which gradually introduces the student to the statistical mechanical study of the different phases of matter and to the phase transitions between them. Throughout, only simple models of both ordinary and soft matter are used but these are studied in full detail. The subject is developed in a pedagogical manner, starting from the basics, going from the simple ideal systems to the interacting systems, and ending with the more modern topics. The textbook provides the student with a complete overview, intentionally at an introductory level, of the theory of phase transitions. All equations and deductions are included.

Equilibrium Problems: Nonsmooth Optimization and Variational Inequality Models

Equilibrium Problems: Nonsmooth Optimization and Variational Inequality Models Pdf/ePub eBook Author: F. Giannessi,A. Maugeri,Panos M. Pardalos
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0306480263
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Equilibrium Problems: Nonsmooth Optimization and Variational Inequality Models by F. Giannessi,A. Maugeri,Panos M. Pardalos Summary

The aim of the book is to cover the three fundamental aspects of research in equilibrium problems: the statement problem and its formulation using mainly variational methods, its theoretical solution by means of classical and new variational tools, the calculus of solutions and applications in concrete cases. The book shows how many equilibrium problems follow a general law (the so-called user equilibrium condition). Such law allows us to express the problem in terms of variational inequalities. Variational inequalities provide a powerful methodology, by which existence and calculation of the solution can be obtained.

Variational Inequalities and Network Equilibrium Problems

Variational Inequalities and Network Equilibrium Problems Pdf/ePub eBook Author: F. Giannessi,A. Maugeri
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1489913580
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Variational Inequalities and Network Equilibrium Problems by F. Giannessi,A. Maugeri Summary

This volume brings forth a set of papers presented at the conference on "Varia tional Inequalities and network equilibrium problems", held in Erice at the "G. Stam pacchia" School of the "E. Majorana" Centre for Scientific Culture in the period 19~25 June 1994. The meeting was conceived to contribute to the exchange between Variational Analysis and equilibrium problems, especially those related to network design. Most of the approaches and viewpoints of these fields are present in the volume, both as concerns the theory and the applications of equilibrium problems to transportation, computer and electric networks, to market behavior, and to bi~level programming. Being convinced of the great importance of equilibrium problems as well as of their complexity, the organizers hope that the merging of points of view coming from differ ent fields will stimulate theoretical research and applications. In this context Variational and Quasi~Variational Inequalities have shown them selves to be very important models for equilibrium problems. As a consequence in the last two decades they have received a lot of attention both as to mathematical inves tigation and applications. The proof that the above mentioned equilibrium problems can be expressed, in terms of Variational or Quasi~Variational Inequalities also in the non~standard and non~symmetric cases, has been a crucial improvement.

Refinements of the Nash Equilibrium Concept

Refinements of the Nash Equilibrium Concept Pdf/ePub eBook Author: E. van Damme
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642499708
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Refinements of the Nash Equilibrium Concept by E. van Damme Summary

In this monograph, noncooperative games are studied. Since in a noncooperative game binding agreements are not possible, the solution of such a game has to be self enforcing, i. e. a Nash equilibrium (NASH [1950,1951J). In general, however, a game may possess many equilibria and so the problem arises which one of these should be chosen as the solution. It was first pointed out explicitly in SELTEN [1965J that I not all Nash equilibria of an extensive form game are qualified to be selected as the solution, since an equilibrium may prescribe irrational behavior at unreached parts of the game tree. Moreover, also for normal form games not all Nash equilibria are eligible, since an equilibrium need not be robust with respect to slight perturba tions in the data of the game. These observations lead to the conclusion that the Nash equilibrium concept has to be refined in order to obtain sensible solutions for every game. In the monograph, various refinements of the Nash equilibrium concept are studied. Some of these have been proposed in the literature, but others are presented here for the first time. The objective is to study the relations between these refine ments;to derive characterizations and to discuss the underlying assumptions. The greater part of the monograph (the chapters 2-5) is devoted to the study of normal form games. Extensive form games are considered in chapter 6.

Computational Aspects of General Equilibrium Theory

Computational Aspects of General Equilibrium Theory Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Donald Brown,Felix Kubler
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540765913
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Computational Aspects of General Equilibrium Theory by Donald Brown,Felix Kubler Summary

This monograph presents a general equilibrium methodology for microeconomic policy analysis. It is intended to serve as an alternative to the now classical, axiomatic general equilibrium theory as exposited in Debreu`s Theory of Value (1959) or Arrow and Hahn`s General Competitive Analysis (1971). The monograph consists of several essays written over the last decade. It also contains an appendix by Charles Steinhorn on the elements of O-minimal structures.

Price Dynamics in Equilibrium Models

Price Dynamics in Equilibrium Models Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Jan Tuinstra
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461516617
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Price Dynamics in Equilibrium Models by Jan Tuinstra Summary

A long-standing unsolved problem in economic theory is how economic equilibria are attained. Price Dynamics in Equilibrium Models: The Search for Equilibrium and the Emergence of Endogenous Fluctuations considers a number of adjustment processes in different economic models and investigates their dynamical behaviour. Two important themes arising in this context are `bounded rationality' and `nonlinear dynamics'. Important sub-themes of the book are the following: how do boundedly rational agents interact with their environment and does this interaction in some sense lead to rational outcomes (which may or may not correspond to equilibria)? The second sub-theme deals with the consequences of the nonlinear dynamical nature of many adjustment processes. The results presented in this volume indicate that endogenous fluctuations are the rule rather than the exception in the search for equilibrium. The book uses the theory of nonlinear dynamics to analyze the dynamics of the different economic models. Due to the complexity of most of the models, an important role is played by computational methods. In particular, at regular instances the models are analyzed by numerical simulations and some computer-assisted proofs are provided. It also covers a wide range of dynamical models from economic theory. Most of these models merge the theory of nonlinear economic dynamics with the theory of bounded rationality. The book is written for anyone with an interest in economic theory in general and bounded rationality and endogenous fluctuations in particular. It is entirely self-contained and accessible to readers with only a limited knowledge of economic theory.

Applied General Equilibrium

Applied General Equilibrium Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Manuel Alejandro Cardenete,Ana-Isabel Guerra,Ferran Sancho
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642247466
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Applied General Equilibrium by Manuel Alejandro Cardenete,Ana-Isabel Guerra,Ferran Sancho Summary

This advanced textbook aims at providing a simple but fully operational introduction to applied general equilibrium. General equilibrium is the backbone of modern economic analysis and as such generation after generation of economics students are introduced to it. As an analytical tool in economics, general equilibrium provides one of the most complete views of an economy since it incorporates all economic agents (households, firms, government, foreign sector) in an integrated way that is compatible with microtheory and microdata. The integration of theory and data handling is required for successful modeling but it requires a double ability that is not found in standard books. With this book we aim at filling the gap and provide advanced students with the required tools, from the building of consistent and applicable general equilibrium models to the interpretation of the results that ensue from the adoption of policies. The topics include: model design, model development, computer code examples, calibration and data adjustments, practical policy examples.

Equilibrium and Efficiency in Production Economies

Equilibrium and Efficiency in Production Economies Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Antonio Villar
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642596703
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Equilibrium and Efficiency in Production Economies by Antonio Villar Summary

This book is a substantially revised and enlarged version of the monograph General Equilibrium with Increasing Returns, published by Springer-Verlag as a Lecture Notes volume in 1996. It incorporates new topics and the most recent developments in the field. It also provides a more systematic analysis of the differences between production economies with and without convex production sets. Five out of twelve chapters are new, and most of the remaining ones have been reformulated. An outline of contents appears in chapter 1. As its predecessor, this book contains a formal and systematic exposition of the main results on the existence and efficiency of equilibrium, in production economies where production sets need not be convex. There is an explicit attempt at making of it a suitable reference both for graduate students and researchers interested in theory (not necessarily specialists in mathematical economics). With this twofold purpose in mind, the work has been written according to three key principles: (i) To provide a uhified approach to the problems involved. For that we construct a basic model that is rich enough to encompass the different models appearing throughout, and to derive all the results as coroilaries of a reduced number of general theorems. (ii) To maintain a relatively low mathematical complexity. Thus, when the estimated cost of generality exceeds the benefit of simplicity, we shall state and prove the theorems under assumptions that need not be the most general ones.

Essays in Dynamic General Equilibrium Theory

Essays in Dynamic General Equilibrium Theory Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Alessandro Citanna,John Donaldson,H. Polemarchakis,Paolo Siconolfi,Stephen Spear
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540271929
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Essays in Dynamic General Equilibrium Theory by Alessandro Citanna,John Donaldson,H. Polemarchakis,Paolo Siconolfi,Stephen Spear Summary

In the area of dynamic economics, David Cass’s work has spawned a number of important lines of research, including the study of dynamic general equilibrium theory, the concept of sunspot equilibria, and general equilibrium theory when markets are incomplete. Based on these contributions, this volume contains new developments in the field, written by Cass's students and co-authors.

Equilibrium Finite Element Formulations

Equilibrium Finite Element Formulations Pdf/ePub eBook Author: J. P. Moitinho de Almeida,Edward A. Maunder
Editor: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118926218
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Equilibrium Finite Element Formulations by J. P. Moitinho de Almeida,Edward A. Maunder Summary

A comprehensive treatment of the theory and practice of equilibrium finite element analysis in the context of solid and structural mechanics Equilibrium Finite Element Formulations is an up to date exposition on hybrid equilibrium finite elements, which are based on the direct approximation of the stress fields. The focus is on their derivation and on the advantages that strong forms of equilibrium can have, either when used independently or together with the more conventional displacement based elements. These elements solve two important problems of concern to computational structural mechanics: a rational basis for error estimation, which leads to bounds on quantities of interest that are vital for verification of the output and provision of outputs immediately useful to the engineer for structural design and assessment. Key features: Unique in its coverage of equilibrium – an essential reference work for those seeking solutions that are strongly equilibrated. The approach is not widely known, and should be of benefit to structural design and assessment. Thorough explanations of the formulations for: 2D and 3D continua, thick and thin bending of plates and potential problems; covering mainly linear aspects of behaviour, but also with some excursions into non-linearity. Highly relevant to the verification of numerical solutions, the basis for obtaining bounds of the errors is explained in detail. Simple illustrative examples are given, together with their physical interpretations. The most relevant issues regarding the computational implementation of this approach are presented. When strong equilibrium and finite elements are to be combined, the book is a must-have reference for postgraduate students, researchers in software development or numerical analysis, and industrial practitioners who want to keep up to date with progress in simulation tools.

Game Equilibrium Models IV

Game Equilibrium Models IV Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Reinhard Selten
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3662073692
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Game Equilibrium Models IV by Reinhard Selten Summary

The four volumes of Game Equilibrium Models present applications of non-cooperative game theory. Problems of strategic interaction arising in biology, economics, political science and the social sciences in general are treated in 42 papers on a wide variety of subjects. Internationally known authors with backgrounds in various disciplines have contributed original research. The reader finds innovative modelling combined with advanced methods of analysis. The four volumes are the outcome of a research year at the Center for Interdisciplinary Studies of the University of Bielefeld. The close interaction of an international interdisciplinary group of researchers has produced an unusual collection of remarkable results of great interest for everybody who wants to be informed on the scope, potential, and future direction of work in applied game theory. Volume IV Social and Political Interaction contains game equilibrium models focussing on social and political interaction within communities or states or between states, i.e. national and international social and political interaction. Specific aspects of those interactions are modelled as non-cooperative games and their equilibria are analysed.

Optimization Models and Methods for Equilibrium Traffic Assignment

Optimization Models and Methods for Equilibrium Traffic Assignment Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Alexander Krylatov,Victor Zakharov,Tero Tuovinen
Editor: Springer Nature
ISBN: 303034102X
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Optimization Models and Methods for Equilibrium Traffic Assignment by Alexander Krylatov,Victor Zakharov,Tero Tuovinen Summary

This book is focused on the discussion of the traffic assignment problem, the mathematical and practical meaning of variables, functions and basic principles. This work gives information about new approaches, methods and algorithms based on original methodological technique, developed by authors in their publications for the past several years, as well as corresponding prospective implementations. The book may be of interest to a wide range of readers, such as civil engineering students, traffic engineers, developers of traffic assignment algorithms etc. The obtained results here are to be used in both practice and theory. This book is devoted to the traffic assignment problem, formulated in a form of nonlinear optimization program. The most efficient solution algorithms related to the problem are based on its structural features and practical meaning rather than on standard nonlinear optimization techniques or approaches. The authors have carefully considered the meaning of the traffic assignment problem for efficient algorithms development.

Game-Theoretic Methods in General Equilibrium Analysis

Game-Theoretic Methods in General Equilibrium Analysis Pdf/ePub eBook Author: J.F. Mertens,S. Sorin
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401716560
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Game-Theoretic Methods in General Equilibrium Analysis by J.F. Mertens,S. Sorin Summary

JEAN-FRANQOIS MERTENS This book presents a systematic exposition of the use of game theoretic methods in general equilibrium analysis. Clearly the first such use was by Arrow and Debreu, with the "birth" of general equi librium theory itself, in using Nash's existence theorem (or a generalization) to prove the existence of a competitive equilibrium. But this use appeared possibly to be merely tech nical, borrowing some tools for proving a theorem. This book stresses the later contributions, were game theoretic concepts were used as such, to explain various aspects of the general equilibrium model. But clearly, each of those later approaches also provides per sea game theoretic proof of the existence of competitive equilibrium. Part A deals with the first such approach: the equality between the set of competitive equilibria of a perfectly competitive (i.e., every trader has negligible market power) economy and the core of the corresponding cooperative game.

Rationality and Equilibrium

Rationality and Equilibrium Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Charalambos D. Aliprantis,Rosa L. Matzkin,Daniel L. McFadden,James C. Moore,Nicholas C. Yannelis
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 354029578X
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Rationality and Equilibrium by Charalambos D. Aliprantis,Rosa L. Matzkin,Daniel L. McFadden,James C. Moore,Nicholas C. Yannelis Summary

This book contains a collection of original and state-of-the-art contributions in rational choice and general equilibrium theory. Among the topics are preferences, demand, equilibrium, core allocations, and testable restrictions. The contributing authors are Daniel McFadden, Rosa Matzkin, Emma Moreno-Garcia, Roger Lagunoff, Yakar Kannai, Myrna Wooders, James Moore, Ted Bergstrom, Luca Anderlini, Lin Zhou, Mark Bagnoli, Alexander Kovalenkov, Carlos Herves-Beloso, Michaela Topuzu, Bernard Cornet, Andreu Mas-Colell and Nicholas Yannelis.

Beyond the Second Law

Beyond the Second Law Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Roderick C. Dewar,Charles H. Lineweaver,Robert K. Niven,Klaus Regenauer-Lieb
Editor: Springer
ISBN: 3642401546
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Beyond the Second Law by Roderick C. Dewar,Charles H. Lineweaver,Robert K. Niven,Klaus Regenauer-Lieb Summary

The Second Law, a cornerstone of thermodynamics, governs the average direction of dissipative, non-equilibrium processes. But it says nothing about their actual rates or the probability of fluctuations about the average. This interdisciplinary book, written and peer-reviewed by international experts, presents recent advances in the search for new non-equilibrium principles beyond the Second Law, and their applications to a wide range of systems across physics, chemistry and biology. Beyond The Second Law brings together traditionally isolated areas of non-equilibrium research and highlights potentially fruitful connections between them, with entropy production playing the unifying role. Key theoretical concepts include the Maximum Entropy Production principle, the Fluctuation Theorem, and the Maximum Entropy method of statistical inference. Applications of these principles are illustrated in such diverse fields as climatology, cosmology, crystal growth morphology, Earth system science, environmental physics, evolutionary biology and technology, fluid turbulence, microbial biogeochemistry, plasma physics, and radiative transport, using a wide variety of analytical and experimental techniques. Beyond The Second Law will appeal to students and researchers wishing to gain an understanding of entropy production and its central place in the science of non-equilibrium systems – both in detail and in terms of the bigger picture.

Equilibrium Theory for Cournot Oligopolies and Related Games

Equilibrium Theory for Cournot Oligopolies and Related Games Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Pierre von Mouche,Federico Quartieri
Editor: Springer
ISBN: 3319292544
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Equilibrium Theory for Cournot Oligopolies and Related Games by Pierre von Mouche,Federico Quartieri Summary

This state-of-the-art collection of papers on the theory of Cournotian competition focuses on two main subjects: oligopolistic Cournot competition and contests. The contributors present various applications of the Cournotian Equilibrium Theory, addressing topics such as equilibrium existence and uniqueness, equilibrium structure, dynamic processes, coalitional behavior and welfare. Special emphasis is placed on the aggregative nature of the games that are relevant to such theory. This contributed volume was written to celebrate the 80th birthday of Prof. Koji Okuguchi, a pioneer in oligopoly theory.

Nonlinear Dynamics in Equilibrium Models

Nonlinear Dynamics in Equilibrium Models Pdf/ePub eBook Author: John Stachurski,Alain Venditti,Makoto Yano
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642223974
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Nonlinear Dynamics in Equilibrium Models by John Stachurski,Alain Venditti,Makoto Yano Summary

Optimal growth theory studies the problem of efficient resource allocation over time, a fundamental concern of economic research. Since the 1970s, the techniques of nonlinear dynamical systems have become a vital tool in optimal growth theory, illuminating dynamics and demonstrating the possibility of endogenous economic fluctuations. Kazuo Nishimura's seminal contributions on business cycles, chaotic equilibria and indeterminacy have been central to this development, transforming our understanding of economic growth, cycles, and the relationship between them. The subjects of Kazuo's analysis remain of fundamental importance to modern economic theory. This book collects his major contributions in a single volume. Kazuo Nishimura has been recognized for his contributions to economic theory on many occasions, being elected fellow of the Econometric Society and serving as an editor of several major journals. Chapter “Introduction” is available open access under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License via link.springer.com.

Thermodynamics of Phase Equilibria in Food Engineering

Thermodynamics of Phase Equilibria in Food Engineering Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Camila Gambini Pereira
Editor: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128115572
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Thermodynamics of Phase Equilibria in Food Engineering by Camila Gambini Pereira Summary

Thermodynamics of Phase Equilibria in Food Engineering is the definitive book on thermodynamics of equilibrium applied to food engineering. Food is a complex matrix consisting of different groups of compounds divided into macronutrients (lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins), and micronutrients (vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals). The quality characteristics of food products associated with the sensorial, physical and microbiological attributes are directly related to the thermodynamic properties of specific compounds and complexes that are formed during processing or by the action of diverse interventions, such as the environment, biochemical reactions, and others. In addition, in obtaining bioactive substances using separation processes, the knowledge of phase equilibria of food systems is essential to provide an efficient separation, with a low cost in the process and high selectivity in the recovery of the desired component. This book combines theory and application of phase equilibria data of systems containing food compounds to help food engineers and researchers to solve complex problems found in food processing. It provides support to researchers from academia and industry to better understand the behavior of food materials in the face of processing effects, and to develop ways to improve the quality of the food products. Presents the fundamentals of phase equilibria in the food industry Describes both classic and advanced models, including cubic equations of state and activity coefficient Encompasses distillation, solid-liquid extraction, liquid-liquid extraction, adsorption, crystallization and supercritical fluid extraction Explores equilibrium in advanced systems, including colloidal, electrolyte and protein systems

On Equilibrium

On Equilibrium Pdf/ePub eBook Author: John Ralston Saul
Editor: Penguin Canada
ISBN: 0143181432
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On Equilibrium by John Ralston Saul Summary

What does John Ralston Saul's influential philosophical trilogy Voltaire's Bastards, The Doubter's Companion and The Unconscious Civilization mean for the real lives of individuals? Is it possible to apply his groundbreaking theories to everyday life? On Equilibrium presents us with a virtual "how to" of the ways that ideas can translate into action. Saul explains how our different qualities give us the intelligence, self-confidence and ability to think and act as responsible individuals. Saul argues that when human qualities are worshipped in isolation they become weaknesses, even forces of destruction or self-destruction. In short, they become ideologies. But as he explores the qualities he has identified as being necessary to integrated human behaviour, he shows us that the key is to use these qualities in combination. How can we use these qualities as positive forces in our own lives and in society? How can we use them to reinforce us as humans? On Equilibrium is an intelligent, persuasive and controversial exploration of the essential qualities of humanity and how to use them to achieve equilibrium for the self and for an ethical society. It is a logical, compelling and humane successor to his bestselling trilogy.

Stability and Perfection of Nash Equilibria

Stability and Perfection of Nash Equilibria Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Eric van Damme
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 364296978X
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Stability and Perfection of Nash Equilibria by Eric van Damme Summary

The last decade has seen a steady increase in the application of concepts from noncooperative game theory to such diverse fields as economics, political science, law, operations research, biology and social psychology. As a byproduct of this increased activity, there has been a growing awareness of the fact that the basic noncooperative solution concept, that of Nash equilibrium, suffers from severe drawbacks. The two main shortcomings of this concept are the following: (i) In extensive form games, a Nash strategy may prescribe off the equilibrium path behavior that is manifestly irrational. (Specifically, Nash equilibria may involve incredible threats), (ii) Nash equilibria need not be robust with respect to small perturbations in the data of the game. Confronted with the growing evidence to the detriment of the Nash concept, game theorists were prompted to search for more refined equilibrium notions with better properties and they have come up with a wide array of alternative solution concepts. This book surveys the most important refinements that have been introduced. Its objectives are fourfold (i) to illustrate desirable properties as well as drawbacks of the various equilibrium notions by means of simple specific examples, (ii) to study the relationships between the various refinements, (iii) to derive simplifying characterizations, and (iv) to discuss the plausibility of the assumptions underlying the concepts.

Financial Markets Theory

Financial Markets Theory Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Emilio Barucci
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1447100891
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Financial Markets Theory by Emilio Barucci Summary

A presentation of classical asset pricing theory, this textbook is the only one to address the economic foundations of financial markets theory from a mathematically rigorous standpoint and to offer a self-contained critical discussion based on empirical results. Tools for understanding the economic analysis are provided, and mathematical models are presented in discrete time/finite state space for simplicity. Examples and exercises included.

Equilibrium

Equilibrium Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Lorrie Thomson
Editor: Kensington Publishing Corp.
ISBN: 0758285787
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Equilibrium by Lorrie Thomson Summary

An amazing debut! --Lisa Verge Higgins In the year since her husband died, Laura Klein's world has shifted on its axis. It's not just that she's raising two children alone--fact is, Laura always did the parenting for both of them. But now her fifteen-year-old daughter, Darcy, is dating a boy with a fast car and faster hands, and thirteen-year-old Troy's attitude has plummeted along with his voice. Just when she's resigning herself to a life of worry and selfless support, her charismatic new tenant offers what Laura least expects: a second chance. Darcy isn't surprised her mom doesn't understand her, though she never imagined her suddenly acting like a love-struck teen herself. With Troy starting to show signs of their father's bipolar disorder, and her best friend increasingly secretive, Darcy turns to her new boyfriend, Nick, for support. Yet Nick has a troubled side of his own, forcing Darcy toward life-altering choices. Exploring the effects of grief on both mother and daughter, Equilibrium is a thoughtful, resolutely uplifting novel about finding the balance between holding on and letting go, between knowing when to mourn and when to hope, and between the love we seek and the love we choose to give. "Equilibrium is an emotional, complex, and deeply satisfying novel about the power of hope, love, and family. I couldn't put it down!" --Lisa Verge Higgins, author of One Good Friend Deserves Another "Tender, heartbreaking and beautifully realistic. Fans of Anita Shreve will be riveted by this intense and compassionate story." --Hank Phillippi Ryan, Agatha, Anthony and Macavity-winning author

Vector Variational Inequalities and Vector Equilibria

Vector Variational Inequalities and Vector Equilibria Pdf/ePub eBook Author: F. Giannessi
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461302994
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Vector Variational Inequalities and Vector Equilibria by F. Giannessi Summary

The book deals with the mathematical theory of vector variational inequalities with special reference to equilibrium problems. Such models have been introduced recently to study new problems from mechanics, structural engineering, networks, and industrial management, and to revisit old ones. The common feature of these problems is that given by the presence of concurrent objectives and by the difficulty of identifying a global functional (like energy) to be extremized. The vector variational inequalities have the advantage of both the variational ones and vector optimization which are found as special cases. Among several applications, the equilibrium flows on a network receive special attention. Audience: The book is addressed to academic researchers as well as industrial ones, in the fields of mathematics, engineering, mathematical programming, control theory, operations research, computer science, and economics.

Introduction to Phase Equilibria in Ceramic Systems

Introduction to Phase Equilibria in Ceramic Systems Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Hummel
Editor: Routledge
ISBN: 1351436732
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Introduction to Phase Equilibria in Ceramic Systems by Hummel Summary

Written by a leading practitioner and teacher in the field of ceramic science and engineering, this outstanding text provides advanced undergraduate- and graduate-level students with a comprehensive, up-to-date Introduction to Phase Equilibria in Ceramic Systems. Building upon a concise definition of the phase rule, the book logically proceeds from one- and two-component systems through increasingly complex systems, enabling students to utilize the phase rule in real applications. Unique because of its emphasis on phase diagrams, timely because of the rising importance of ceramic applications, practical because of its pedagogical approach, Introduction to Phase Equilibria in Ceramic Systems offers end-of-chapter review problems, extensive reading lists, a solid thermodynamic foundation and clear perspectives on the special properties of ceramics as compared to metals.This authoritative volume fills a broad gap in the literature, helping undergraduate- and graduate-level students of ceramic engineering and materials science to approach this demanding subject in a rational, confident fashion. In addition, Introduction to Phase Equilibria in Ceramic Systems serves as a valuable supplement to undergraduate-level metallurgy programs.

Ionic and Electrochemical Equilibria

Ionic and Electrochemical Equilibria Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Michel Soustelle
Editor: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119178622
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Ionic and Electrochemical Equilibria by Michel Soustelle Summary

This book is part of a set of books which offers advanced students successive characterization tool phases, the study of all types of phase (liquid, gas and solid, pure or multi-component), process engineering, chemical and electrochemical equilibria, and the properties of surfaces and phases of small sizes. Macroscopic and microscopic models are in turn covered with a constant correlation between the two scales. Particular attention has been paid to the rigor of mathematical developments. This sixth volume is made up of two parts. The first part focuses on the study of ionic equilibria in water or non-aqueous solvents. The following are then discussed in succession: the dissociation of electrolytes, solvents and solvation, acid-base equilibria, formation of complexes, redox equilibria and the problems of precipitation. Part 2 discusses electrochemical thermodynamics, with the study of two groups: electrodes and electrochemical cells. The book concludes with the study of potential-pH diagrams and their generalization in an aqueous or non-aqueous medium.

Pareto Optimality, Game Theory and Equilibria

Pareto Optimality, Game Theory and Equilibria Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Panos M. Pardalos,A. Migdalas,Leonidas Pitsoulis
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0387772472
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Pareto Optimality, Game Theory and Equilibria by Panos M. Pardalos,A. Migdalas,Leonidas Pitsoulis Summary

This comprehensive work examines important recent developments and modern applications in the fields of optimization, control, game theory and equilibrium programming. In particular, the concepts of equilibrium and optimality are of immense practical importance affecting decision-making problems regarding policy and strategies, and in understanding and predicting systems in different application domains, ranging from economics and engineering to military applications. The book consists of 29 survey chapters written by distinguished researchers in the above areas.

Principles of Economics, 2Nd Edition

Principles of Economics, 2Nd Edition Pdf/ePub eBook Author: D.N. Dwivedi
Editor: Vikas Publishing House
ISBN: 8125916512
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Principles of Economics, 2Nd Edition by D.N. Dwivedi Summary

Principles Of Economics Is A Comprehensive Textbook For Undergraduate And Postgraduate Students. The Book Begins With A Simple Introduction To Economics As A Social Science, Moves On To Basic Economic Problems Of Individuals, Firms And The Society Focusin

Evolutionary Foundations of Equilibria in Irrational Markets

Evolutionary Foundations of Equilibria in Irrational Markets Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Guo Ying Luo
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781461407126
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Evolutionary Foundations of Equilibria in Irrational Markets by Guo Ying Luo Summary

One of the core building blocks of traditional economic theory is the concept of equilibrium, a state of the world in which economic forces are balanced and in the absence of external influences the values of economic variables remain static. Many traditional equilibrium models, or equilibria, are established based on the rational behavior of individuals within financial markets, such as traders, market analysts, and investing firms, and their ability to maximize profits, no matter the cost. Yet what happens when these market participants behave in an irrational manner, and how does this impact economic equilibria? Contemporary economists have agreed that a process similar to Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection takes over, whereby equilibria are shaped not by the behavior of individual participants but by an environment outside its control (i.e., an environment with little concern for maximizing profits). It is an environment in which those “selected” produce positive financial gains, but have no regard for how it was obtained or underlying motivations—and those participants suffering losses disappear altogether. Evolutionary Foundations of Equilibria in Irrational Markets proves traditional economic equilibria continue to occur despite natural selection in irrational markets. It covers a wide sampling of equilibria under various scenarios, and each chapter addresses the results of these models at an aggregate level. The text is supplemented with charts and figures to drive home key findings and proofs, making it of interest to students and researchers in the areas of economics and behavioral finance.

Multiphase Equilibria of Complex Reservoir Fluids

Multiphase Equilibria of Complex Reservoir Fluids Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Huazhou Li
Editor: Springer Nature
ISBN: 3030874400
FileSize: 1541kb
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Multiphase Equilibria of Complex Reservoir Fluids by Huazhou Li Summary

This short monograph focuses on the theoretical backgrounds and practical implementations concerning the thermodynamic modeling of multiphase equilibria of complex reservoir fluids using cubic equations of state. It aims to address the increasing needs of multiphase equilibrium calculations that arise in the compositional modeling of multiphase flow in reservoirs and wellbores. It provides a state-of-the-art coverage on the recent improvements of cubic equations of state. Considering that stability test and flash calculation are two basic tasks involved in any multiphase equilibrium calculations, it elaborates on the rigorous mathematical frameworks dedicated to stability test and flash calculation. A special treatment is given to the new algorithms that are recently developed to perform robust and efficient three-phase equilibrium calculations. This monograph will be of value to graduate students who conduct research in the field of phase behavior, as well as software engineers who work on the development of multiphase equilibrium calculation algorithms.

CRC Handbook of Phase Equilibria and Thermodynamic Data of Aqueous Polymer Solutions

CRC Handbook of Phase Equilibria and Thermodynamic Data of Aqueous Polymer Solutions Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Christian Wohlfarth
Editor: CRC Press
ISBN: 1466554436
FileSize: 1891kb
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CRC Handbook of Phase Equilibria and Thermodynamic Data of Aqueous Polymer Solutions by Christian Wohlfarth Summary

A large amount of experimental data has been published since the debut of the original CRC Handbook of Thermodynamic Data of Aqueous Polymer Solutions. Incorporating new and updated material, the CRC Handbook of Phase Equilibria and Thermodynamic Data of Aqueous Polymer Solutions provides a comprehensive collection of thermodynamic data of polymer solutions. It helps readers quickly retrieve necessary information from the literature, and assists researchers in planning new measurements where data are missing. A valuable resource for the modern chemistry field, the Handbook clearly details how measurements were conducted and methodically explains the nomenclature. It presents data essential for the production and use of polymers as well as for understanding the physical behavior and intermolecular interactions in polymer solutions.

Working Guide to Vapor-Liquid Phase Equilibria Calculations

Working Guide to Vapor-Liquid Phase Equilibria Calculations Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Tarek Ahmed
Editor: Gulf Professional Publishing
ISBN: 9781856179027
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Working Guide to Vapor-Liquid Phase Equilibria Calculations by Tarek Ahmed Summary

Working Guide to Vapor-Liquid Phase Equilibria Calculations offers a practical guide for calculations of vapor-phase equilibria. The book begins by introducing basic concepts such as vapor pressure, vapor pressure charts, equilibrium ratios, and flash calculations. It then presents methods for predicting the equilibrium ratios of hydrocarbon mixtures: Wilson's correlation, Standing's correlation, convergence pressure method, and Whitson and Torp correlation. The book describes techniques to determine equilibrium ratios of the plus fraction, including Campbell's method, Winn's method, and Katz's method. The remaining chapters cover the solution of phase equilibrium problems in reservoir and process engineering; developments in the field of empirical cubic equations of state (EOS) and their applications in petroleum engineering; and the splitting of the plus fraction for EOS calculations. Includes explanations of formulas Step by step calculations Provides examples and solutions

Nonlinear Programming Techniques for Equilibria

Nonlinear Programming Techniques for Equilibria Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Giancarlo Bigi,Marco Castellani,Massimo Pappalardo,Mauro Passacantando
Editor: Springer
ISBN: 3030002055
FileSize: 1546kb
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Nonlinear Programming Techniques for Equilibria by Giancarlo Bigi,Marco Castellani,Massimo Pappalardo,Mauro Passacantando Summary

This book considers a range of problems in operations research, which are formulated through various mathematical models such as complementarity, variational inequalities, multiobjective optimization, fixed point problems, noncooperative games and inverse optimization. Moreover, the book subsumes all these models under a common structure that allows them to be formulated in a unique format: the Ky Fan inequality. It subsequently focuses on this unifying equilibrium format, providing a comprehensive overview of the main theoretical results and solution algorithms, together with a wealth of applications and numerical examples. Particular emphasis is placed on the role of nonlinear optimization techniques – e.g. convex optimization, nonsmooth calculus, proximal point and descent algorithms – as valuable tools for analyzing and solving Ky Fan inequalities.

Economic Disturbances and Equilibrium in an Integrated Global Economy

Economic Disturbances and Equilibrium in an Integrated Global Economy Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Victor A. Canto
Editor: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128139943
FileSize: 1792kb
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Economic Disturbances and Equilibrium in an Integrated Global Economy by Victor A. Canto Summary

Economic Disturbances and Equilibrium in an Integrated Global Economy: Investment Insights and Policy Analysis helps readers develop a framework for analyzing economic events and make better, more consistent decisions. Victor Canto presents the theoretical building blocks that make up the overall framework, then expands the framework to tackle more complex problems, applying additional considerations to actual policy or investment issues. Drawing upon the most recent trends in monetary policy and international economics, the book offers sustained direct engagement with the main research question and makes innovative use of the simple concepts of supply and demand to illuminate modern finance literature. The book succeeds by highlighting the often-forgotten interconnectedness of different economic processes. How do we respond to a change in policy or an economic shock? Are all the expected changes to the general equilibrium consistent with each other? Helps readers build an intellectual framework that enables them to interpret articles in the financial press and policy decisions in a logical and consistent manner Differs from other books by eschewing partial equilibria analyses and instead providing a general equilibrium perspective useful for investors and policy makers Provides supporting data on a freely-accessible website so readers can test and replicate results

The Elgar Companion to Austrian Economics

The Elgar Companion to Austrian Economics Pdf/ePub eBook Author: P. J. Boettke
Editor: Edward Elgar Publishing
ISBN: 9780857934680
FileSize: 1248kb
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The Elgar Companion to Austrian Economics by P. J. Boettke Summary

'The book can be recommended both to those who know something about Austrian economics already, and to those who know nothing.' David Simpson, Economic Affairs 'Mr Boettke's very readable compendium consists of short articles by mostly young scholars, selected to illustrate the diversity and fecundity of modern Austrian economics.' Michael Prowse, The Financial Times The Elgar Companion to Austrian Economics is a major new reference work which highlights the common ground between all the branches of the school while demonstrating the breadth and diversity within it. The Companion reflects the many areas where Austrian economists have made contributions, including technical economics, methodology of the social sciences, political theory and political science. This book includes contributions from an international group of scholars whose work demonstrates a basic similarity and interest in questions which have historically been associated with the Austrian approach to economics, although many of the contributors would not consider themselves to be strictly of this school. The distinguished team of contributors commissioned by the editor includes: K.D. Hoover, I.M. Kirzner, A. Klamer, D. Lavoie, C.K. Rowley, M. Rizzo, M. Rutherford, R.E. Wagner, U. Witt, L. Yeager. Each entry is fully referenced and includes suggestions for further readings on the topic. The Companion will be the standard reference work for all those engaged in the field of Austrian Economics. It not only introduces students to the Austrian school, but also serves as an important research tool for scholars working within the Austrian tradition.

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