Equilibrium

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CO2 in Seawater: Equilibrium, Kinetics, Isotopes

CO2 in Seawater: Equilibrium, Kinetics, Isotopes Pdf/ePub eBook Author: ,
Editor: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080529226
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CO2 in Seawater: Equilibrium, Kinetics, Isotopes by , Summary

Carbon dioxide is the most important greenhouse gas after water vapor in the atmosphere of the earth. More than 98% of the carbon of the atmosphere-ocean system is stored in the oceans as dissolved inorganic carbon. The key for understanding critical processes of the marine carbon cycle is a sound knowledge of the seawater carbonate chemistry, including equilibrium and nonequilibrium properties as well as stable isotope fractionation. Presenting the first coherent text describing equilibrium and nonequilibrium properties and stable isotope fractionation among the elements of the carbonate system. This volume presents an overview and a synthesis of these subjects which should be useful for graduate students and researchers in various fields such as biogeochemistry, chemical oceanography, paleoceanography, marine biology, marine chemistry, marine geology, and others. The volume includes an introduction to the equilibrium properties of the carbonate system in which basic concepts such as equilibrium constants, alkalinity, pH scales, and buffering are discussed. It also deals with the nonequilibrium properties of the seawater carbonate chemistry. Whereas principle of chemical kinetics are recapitulated, reaction rates and relaxation times of the carbonate system are considered in details. The book also provides a general introduction to stable isotope fractionation and describes the partitioning of carbon, oxygen, and boron isotopes between the species of the carbonate system. The appendix contains formulas for the equilibrium constants of the carbonate system, mathematical expressions to calculate carbonate system parameters, answers to exercises and more.

Non-Equilibrium Dynamics of Semiconductors and Nanostructures

Non-Equilibrium Dynamics of Semiconductors and Nanostructures Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Kong-Thon Tsen
Editor: CRC Press
ISBN: 1420027255
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Non-Equilibrium Dynamics of Semiconductors and Nanostructures by Kong-Thon Tsen Summary

The advent of the femto-second laser has enabled us to observe phenomena at the atomic timescale. One area to reap enormous benefits from this ability is ultrafast dynamics. Collecting the works of leading experts from around the globe, Non-Equilibrium Dynamics of Semiconductors and Nanostructures surveys recent developments in a variety of areas in ultrafast dynamics. In eight authoritative chapters illustrated by more than 150 figures, this book spans a broad range of new techniques and advances. It begins with a review of spin dynamics in a high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas, followed by the generation, propagation, and nonlinear properties of high-amplitude, ultrashort strain solitons in solids. The discussion then turns to nonlinear optical properties of nanoscale artificial dielectrics, optical properties of GaN self-assembled quantum dots, and optical studies of carrier dynamics and non-equilibrium optical phonons in nitride-based semiconductors. Rounding out the presentation, the book examines ultrafast non-equilibrium electron dynamics in metal nanoparticles, monochromatic acoustic phonons in GaAs, and electromagnetically induced transparency in semiconductor quantum wells. With its pedagogical approach and practical, up-to-date coverage, Non-Equilibrium Dynamics of Semiconductors and Nanostructures allows you to easily put the material into practice, whether you are a seasoned researcher or new to the field.

Producers, Consumers, and Partial Equilibrium

Producers, Consumers, and Partial Equilibrium Pdf/ePub eBook Author: David Mandy
Editor: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128110244
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Producers, Consumers, and Partial Equilibrium by David Mandy Summary

Producers, Consumers, and Partial Equilibrium provides a systematic and accessible presentation of the full formal details in the core theories of producer and consumer choice under conditions of price taking; and covers the standard theories of competitive, monopoly, and oligopoly partial equilibrium among these economic actors. The book pulls together foundational content from many classic sources and organizes it in a self-contained format that rigidly adheres to optimization as the central behavioral postulate and analytical tool for economic theory. The book maintains a sharp focus on the properties of outcomes from optimizing behavior in varying environments. These properties are the refutable hypotheses from each optimization behavioral postulate, and they form the core content of this positive economic theory. In so doing, the book presents and documents the underlying formal structure of the theory with a higher degree of integration and completeness than is typical of Ph.D. textbooks in microeconomics. Includes comprehensive, focused and unified coverage of the mathematics required for the core theories of producer and consumer choice, and partial equilibrium Presents a generalized envelope theorem as a key source of refutable hypotheses Delineates the role of active versus inactive constraints in generating refutable hypotheses Discusses convex functions in economic optimization environments Presents the full formal details of core producer and consumer and producer theory in a unified and systematic manner Emphasizes the refutable hypotheses resulting from behavioral postulates and the completeness (duality) of those hypotheses for the postulated behavior within microeconomics Includes end-of-chapter exercises, full index, and an instructor’s solutions manual Includes a concordance that matches its chapters with those of major textbooks

Phase Equilibrium Engineering

Phase Equilibrium Engineering Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Esteban Alberto Brignole,Selva Pereda
Editor: Newnes
ISBN: 044459471X
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Phase Equilibrium Engineering by Esteban Alberto Brignole,Selva Pereda Summary

Traditionally, the teaching of phase equilibria emphasizes the relationships between the thermodynamic variables of each phase in equilibrium rather than its engineering applications. This book changes the focus from the use of thermodynamics relationships to compute phase equilibria to the design and control of the phase conditions that a process needs. Phase Equilibrium Engineering presents a systematic study and application of phase equilibrium tools to the development of chemical processes. The thermodynamic modeling of mixtures for process development, synthesis, simulation, design and optimization is analyzed. The relation between the mixture molecular properties, the selection of the thermodynamic model and the process technology that could be applied are discussed. A classification of mixtures, separation process, thermodynamic models and technologies is presented to guide the engineer in the world of separation processes. The phase condition required for a given reacting system is studied at subcritical and supercritical conditions. The four cardinal points of phase equilibrium engineering are: the chemical plant or process, the laboratory, the modeling of phase equilibria and the simulator. The harmonization of all these components to obtain a better design or operation is the ultimate goal of phase equilibrium engineering. Methodologies are discussed using relevant industrial examples The molecular nature and composition of the process mixture is given a key role in process decisions Phase equilibrium diagrams are used as a drawing board for process implementation

Understanding Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics

Understanding Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Georgy Lebon,David Jou
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540742524
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Understanding Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics by Georgy Lebon,David Jou Summary

Discover the many facets of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. The first part of this book describes the current thermodynamic formalism recognized as the classical theory. The second part focuses on different approaches. Throughout the presentation, the emphasis is on problem-solving applications. To help build your understanding, some problems have been analyzed using several formalisms to underscore their differences and their similarities.

Non-Equilibrium Reacting Gas Flows

Non-Equilibrium Reacting Gas Flows Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Ekaterina Nagnibeda,Elena Kustova
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642013904
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Non-Equilibrium Reacting Gas Flows by Ekaterina Nagnibeda,Elena Kustova Summary

In the present monograph, we develop the kinetic theory of transport phenomena and relaxation processes in the flows of reacting gas mixtures and discuss its applications to strongly non-equilibrium conditions. The main attention is focused on the influence of non-equilibrium kinetics on gas dynamics and transport properties. Closed systems of fluid dynamic equations are derived from the kinetic equations in different approaches. We consider the most accurate approach taking into account the state-to-state kinetics in a flow, as well as simplified multi-temperature and one-temperature models based on quasi-stationary distributions. Within these approaches, we propose the algorithms for the calculation of the transport coefficients and rate coefficients of chemical reactions and energy exchanges in non-equilibrium flows; the developed techniques are based on the fundamental kinetic theory principles. The theory is applied to the modeling of non-equilibrium flows behind strong shock waves, in the boundary layer, and in nozzles. The comparison of the results obtained within the frame of different approaches is presented, the advantages of the new state-to-state kinetic model are discussed, and the limits of validity for simplified models are established. The book can be interesting for scientists and graduate students working on physical gas dynamics, aerothermodynamics, heat and mass transfer, non-equilibrium physical-chemical kinetics, and kinetic theory of gases.

Computational Aspects of General Equilibrium Theory

Computational Aspects of General Equilibrium Theory Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Donald Brown,Felix Kubler
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540765912
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Computational Aspects of General Equilibrium Theory by Donald Brown,Felix Kubler Summary

This monograph presents a general equilibrium methodology for microeconomic policy analysis. It is intended to serve as an alternative to the now classical, axiomatic general equilibrium theory as exposited in Debreu`s Theory of Value (1959) or Arrow and Hahn`s General Competitive Analysis (1971). The monograph consists of several essays written over the last decade. It also contains an appendix by Charles Steinhorn on the elements of O-minimal structures.

Temporary Equilibrium and Long-Run Equilibrium (Routledge Revivals)

Temporary Equilibrium and Long-Run Equilibrium (Routledge Revivals) Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Willem H. Buiter
Editor: Routledge
ISBN: 1317703359
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Temporary Equilibrium and Long-Run Equilibrium (Routledge Revivals) by Willem H. Buiter Summary

This title, first published in 1979, presents the Ph.D. thesis of the world-renowned economist and financial expert, Willem Buiter. In Part I, three alternative specifications of temporary equilibria in asset markets, including their implications for macroeconomic models, are discussed; Part II examines the long-term implications of some short-term macroeconomic models. The analysis of the theoretical foundations of ‘direct crowding out’ and ‘indirect crowding out’ is particularly prominent, with the result that a synthesis of short-term macroeconomic analysis and long-term growth theory is formulated. The traditional tools of comparative dynamics and stability analysis are employed frequently. However, it is also argued that the true scope of government policy can only be adequately evaluated with the aid of concepts such as dynamic and static controllability. Temporary Equilibrium and Long-Run Equilibrium is a valuable study, and relevant for all serious students of modern economic theory.

Price Dynamics in Equilibrium Models

Price Dynamics in Equilibrium Models Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Jan Tuinstra
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461516617
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Price Dynamics in Equilibrium Models by Jan Tuinstra Summary

A long-standing unsolved problem in economic theory is how economic equilibria are attained. Price Dynamics in Equilibrium Models: The Search for Equilibrium and the Emergence of Endogenous Fluctuations considers a number of adjustment processes in different economic models and investigates their dynamical behaviour. Two important themes arising in this context are `bounded rationality' and `nonlinear dynamics'. Important sub-themes of the book are the following: how do boundedly rational agents interact with their environment and does this interaction in some sense lead to rational outcomes (which may or may not correspond to equilibria)? The second sub-theme deals with the consequences of the nonlinear dynamical nature of many adjustment processes. The results presented in this volume indicate that endogenous fluctuations are the rule rather than the exception in the search for equilibrium. The book uses the theory of nonlinear dynamics to analyze the dynamics of the different economic models. Due to the complexity of most of the models, an important role is played by computational methods. In particular, at regular instances the models are analyzed by numerical simulations and some computer-assisted proofs are provided. It also covers a wide range of dynamical models from economic theory. Most of these models merge the theory of nonlinear economic dynamics with the theory of bounded rationality. The book is written for anyone with an interest in economic theory in general and bounded rationality and endogenous fluctuations in particular. It is entirely self-contained and accessible to readers with only a limited knowledge of economic theory.

Equilibrium and Advanced Transportation Modelling

Equilibrium and Advanced Transportation Modelling Pdf/ePub eBook Author: P. Marcotte,Sang Nguyen
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461557577
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Equilibrium and Advanced Transportation Modelling by P. Marcotte,Sang Nguyen Summary

Each chapter in Equilibrium and Advanced Transportation Modelling develops a topic from basic concepts to the state-of-the-art, and beyond. All chapters relate to aspects of network equilibrium. Chapter One advocates the use of simulation models for the representation of traffic flow movements at the microscopic level. Chapter Two presents travel demand systems for generating trip matrices from activity-based models, taking into account the entire daily schedule of network users. Chapter Three examines equilibrium strategic choices adopted by the passengers of a congested transit system, carefully addressing line selection at boarding and transfer nodes. Chapter Four provides a critical appraisal of the traditional process that consists in sequentially performing the tasks of trip generation, trip distribution, mode split and assignment, and its impact on the practice of transportation planning. Chapter Five gives an insightful overview of stochastic assignment models, both in the static and dynamic cases. Chapters Six and Seven investigate the setting of tolls to improve traffic flow conditions in a congested transportation network. Chapter Eight provides a unifying framework for the analysis of multicriteria assignment models. In this chapter, available algorithms are summarized and an econometric perspective on the estimation of heterogeneous preferences is given. Chapter Nine surveys the use of hyperpaths in operations research and proposes a new paradigm of equilibrium in a capacitated network, with an application to transit assignment. Chapter Ten analyzes the transient states of a system moving towards equilibrium, using the mathematical framework of projected dynamical systems. Chapter Eleven discusses an in-depth survey of algorithms for solving shortest path problems, which are pervasive to any equilibrium algorithm. The chapter devotes special attention to the computation of dynamic shortest paths and to shortest hyperpaths. The final chapter considers operations research tools for reducing traffic congestion, in particular introducing an algorithm for solving a signal-setting problem formulated as a bilevel program.

Business Cycles and Equilibrium

Business Cycles and Equilibrium Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Fischer Black
Editor: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9780470543276
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Business Cycles and Equilibrium by Fischer Black Summary

An updated look at what Fischer Black's ideas on business cycles and equilibrium mean today Throughout his career, Fischer Black described a view of business fluctuations based on the idea that a well-developed economy will be continually in equilibrium. In the essays that constitute this book, which is one of only two books Black ever wrote, he explores this idea thoroughly and reaches some surprising conclusions. With the newfound popularity of quantitative finance and risk management, the work of Fischer Black has garnered much attention. Business Cycles and Equilibrium-with its theory that economic and financial markets are in a continual equilibrium-is one of his books that still rings true today, given the current economic crisis. This Updated Edition clearly presents Black's classic theory on business cycles and the concept of equilibrium, and contains a new introduction by the person who knows Black best: Perry Mehrling, author of Fischer Black and the Revolutionary Idea of Finance (Wiley). Mehrling goes inside Black's life to uncover what was occurring during the time Black wrote Business Cycles and Equilibrium, while also shedding light on what Black would make of today's financial and economic meltdown and how he would best advise to move forward. The essays within this book reach some interesting conclusions concerning the role of equilibrium in a developed economy Warns about the use and abuse of modeling Explains the risky business of risk in a straightforward and accessible style Contains chapters dedicated to "the effects of uncontrolled banking," "the trouble with econometric models," and "the effects of noise on investing" Includes commentary on Black's life and work at the time Business Cycles and Equilibrium was written as well as insight as to what Black would make of the current financial meltdown Engaging and informative, the Updated Edition of Business Cycles and Equilibrium will give you a better understanding of what is really going on during these uncertain and volatile financial times.

The Market

The Market Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Sydney N. Afriat
Editor: Routledge
ISBN: 113442003X
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The Market by Sydney N. Afriat Summary

This punchy book unites mainline mathematical economics and sometimes idiosyncratic political economy. Freshness is brought to the market concept giving general equilibrium theory a new lease of life, and an opening of thought on such matters as free trade, globalization and the environment. Where most theories of general equilibrium have been based on utility maximizing traders, Afriat here maintains the view that the topic essentially is concerned with aggregates and that anything to do with utility is at best secondary if not spurious. The book goes on to discuss political economy, in particular the idea of 'optimum', and its abuses, especially in doctrine related to the market. This novel book will be of equal appeal to mathematical thinkers, those interested in the theory of market and political economists.

Equilibrium, Markets and Dynamics

Equilibrium, Markets and Dynamics Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Cars H. Hommes,Roald Ramer,Cees A. Withagen
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642561314
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Equilibrium, Markets and Dynamics by Cars H. Hommes,Roald Ramer,Cees A. Withagen Summary

This book contains essays in honour of Claus Weddepohl who, after 22 years, is retiring as professor of mathematical economics at the Department of Quantitative Economics of the University of Amsterdam. Claus Weddepohl may be viewed as th~ first Dutch mathematical economist in the general equi librium tradition of Arrow, Debreu and Hahn. The essays in this book are centered around the themes Equilibrium, Markets and Dynamics, that have been at the heart of Weddepohl's work on mathematical economics for more than three decades. The essays have been classified according to these three themes. Admittedly such a classification always is somewhat arbitrary, and most essays would in fact fit into two or even all three themes. The essays have been written by international as well as Dutch friends and colleagues including Weddepohl's former Ph. D. students. The book starts with a review of Claus Weddepohl's work by Roald Ramer, who has been working with him in Amsterdam for all those years. The review describes how Weddepohl became fascinated by general equilibrium theory in the early stages of his career, how he has been working on the theory of markets throughout his career, and how he turned to applications of nonlinear dynamics to price adjustment processes in a later stage of his career. The first part of the book, Equilibrium, collects essays with general equilib rium theory as the main theme.

Equilibrium

Equilibrium Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Lorrie Thomson
Editor: Kensington Publishing Corp.
ISBN: 0758285787
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Equilibrium by Lorrie Thomson Summary

An amazing debut! --Lisa Verge Higgins In the year since her husband died, Laura Klein's world has shifted on its axis. It's not just that she's raising two children alone--fact is, Laura always did the parenting for both of them. But now her fifteen-year-old daughter, Darcy, is dating a boy with a fast car and faster hands, and thirteen-year-old Troy's attitude has plummeted along with his voice. Just when she's resigning herself to a life of worry and selfless support, her charismatic new tenant offers what Laura least expects: a second chance. Darcy isn't surprised her mom doesn't understand her, though she never imagined her suddenly acting like a love-struck teen herself. With Troy starting to show signs of their father's bipolar disorder, and her best friend increasingly secretive, Darcy turns to her new boyfriend, Nick, for support. Yet Nick has a troubled side of his own, forcing Darcy toward life-altering choices. Exploring the effects of grief on both mother and daughter, Equilibrium is a thoughtful, resolutely uplifting novel about finding the balance between holding on and letting go, between knowing when to mourn and when to hope, and between the love we seek and the love we choose to give. "Equilibrium is an emotional, complex, and deeply satisfying novel about the power of hope, love, and family. I couldn't put it down!" --Lisa Verge Higgins, author of One Good Friend Deserves Another "Tender, heartbreaking and beautifully realistic. Fans of Anita Shreve will be riveted by this intense and compassionate story." --Hank Phillippi Ryan, Agatha, Anthony and Macavity-winning author

On Equilibrium

On Equilibrium Pdf/ePub eBook Author: John Ralston Saul
Editor: Penguin Canada
ISBN: 0143181432
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On Equilibrium by John Ralston Saul Summary

What does John Ralston Saul's influential philosophical trilogy Voltaire's Bastards, The Doubter's Companion and The Unconscious Civilization mean for the real lives of individuals? Is it possible to apply his groundbreaking theories to everyday life? On Equilibrium presents us with a virtual "how to" of the ways that ideas can translate into action. Saul explains how our different qualities give us the intelligence, self-confidence and ability to think and act as responsible individuals. Saul argues that when human qualities are worshipped in isolation they become weaknesses, even forces of destruction or self-destruction. In short, they become ideologies. But as he explores the qualities he has identified as being necessary to integrated human behaviour, he shows us that the key is to use these qualities in combination. How can we use these qualities as positive forces in our own lives and in society? How can we use them to reinforce us as humans? On Equilibrium is an intelligent, persuasive and controversial exploration of the essential qualities of humanity and how to use them to achieve equilibrium for the self and for an ethical society. It is a logical, compelling and humane successor to his bestselling trilogy.

Beyond the Second Law

Beyond the Second Law Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Roderick C. Dewar,Charles H. Lineweaver,Robert K. Niven,Klaus Regenauer-Lieb
Editor: Springer
ISBN: 3642401546
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Beyond the Second Law by Roderick C. Dewar,Charles H. Lineweaver,Robert K. Niven,Klaus Regenauer-Lieb Summary

The Second Law, a cornerstone of thermodynamics, governs the average direction of dissipative, non-equilibrium processes. But it says nothing about their actual rates or the probability of fluctuations about the average. This interdisciplinary book, written and peer-reviewed by international experts, presents recent advances in the search for new non-equilibrium principles beyond the Second Law, and their applications to a wide range of systems across physics, chemistry and biology. Beyond The Second Law brings together traditionally isolated areas of non-equilibrium research and highlights potentially fruitful connections between them, with entropy production playing the unifying role. Key theoretical concepts include the Maximum Entropy Production principle, the Fluctuation Theorem, and the Maximum Entropy method of statistical inference. Applications of these principles are illustrated in such diverse fields as climatology, cosmology, crystal growth morphology, Earth system science, environmental physics, evolutionary biology and technology, fluid turbulence, microbial biogeochemistry, plasma physics, and radiative transport, using a wide variety of analytical and experimental techniques. Beyond The Second Law will appeal to students and researchers wishing to gain an understanding of entropy production and its central place in the science of non-equilibrium systems – both in detail and in terms of the bigger picture.

Thermodynamics in Geochemistry

Thermodynamics in Geochemistry Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Greg M. Anderson,David A. Crerar
Editor: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780195345094
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Thermodynamics in Geochemistry by Greg M. Anderson,David A. Crerar Summary

This textbook and reference outlines the fundamental principles of thermodynamics, emphasizing applications in geochemistry. The work is distinguished by its comprehensive, balanced coverage and its rigorous presentation. The authors bring years of teaching experience to the work, and have attempted to particularly address those areas where other texts on the subject have provided inadequate coverage. A thorough review of the necessary mathematics is presented early on, both as a refresher for those with a background in university calculus, and for the benefit of those coming to the subject for the first time. The text is written for students in advanced undergraduate or graduate-level geochemistry as well as for all researchers in this field.

Near-Equilibrium Transport

Near-Equilibrium Transport Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Mark Lundstrom,Changwook Jeong
Editor: World Scientific Publishing Company
ISBN: 9814452246
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Near-Equilibrium Transport by Mark Lundstrom,Changwook Jeong Summary

These lectures are designed to introduce students to the fundamentals of carrier transport in nano-devices using a novel, “bottom up approach” that agrees with traditional methods when devices are large, but which also works for nano-devices. The goal is to help students learn how to think about carrier transport at the nanoscale and also how the bottom up approach provides a new perspective to traditional concepts like mobility and drift-diffusion equations. The lectures are designed for engineers and scientists and others who need a working knowledge of near-equilibrium (“low-field” or “linear”) transport. Applications of the theory and measurement considerations are also addressed. The lectures serve as a starting point to an extensive set of instructional materials available online.