Greek And Roman Religions

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Animals in Greek and Roman Religion and Myth

Animals in Greek and Roman Religion and Myth Pdf/ePub eBook Author:
Editor: Cambridge Scholars Publishing
ISBN: 144389821X
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Animals in Greek and Roman Religion and Myth by Summary

This volume brings together a variety of approaches to the different ways in which the role of animals was understood in ancient Greco-Roman myth and religion, across a period of several centuries, from Preclassical Greece to Late Antique Rome. Animals in Greco-Roman antiquity were thought to be intermediaries between men and gods, and they played a pivotal role in sacrificial rituals and divination, the foundations of pagan religion. The studies in the first part of the volume examine the role of the animals in sacrifice and divination. The second part explores the similarities between animals, on the one hand, and men and gods, on the other. Indeed, in antiquity, the behaviour of several animals was perceived to mirror human behaviour, while the selection of the various animals as sacrificial victims to specific deities often was determined on account of some peculiar habit that echoed a special attribute of the particular deity. The last part of this volume is devoted to the study of animal metamorphosis, and to this end a number of myths that associate various animals with transformation are examined from a variety of perspectives.

The Ancient City

The Ancient City Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Numa Denis Fustel de Coulanges
Editor: Courier Corporation
ISBN: 0486142353
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The Ancient City by Numa Denis Fustel de Coulanges Summary

This influential survey synthesizes ancient documents and physical evidence to build an account of religious, family, and civic life of Periclean Athens and Rome during the time of Cicero.

Political Religions in the Greco-Roman World

Political Religions in the Greco-Roman World Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Charlotte Dunn,Elias Koulakiotis
Editor: Cambridge Scholars Publishing
ISBN: 1527535401
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Political Religions in the Greco-Roman World by Charlotte Dunn,Elias Koulakiotis Summary

Until the 1980s, historical treatments of ancient religion focused mainly on myth, cult and ritual as a way to interpret the mental structures or primary emotions of ancient peoples, but, in the last few decades, a “political turn” in the study of religion has taken hold. This volume serves to diversify our understanding of the political conceptualizations and implementations of religious practice in the ancient Mediterranean region from the 7th Century BCE to the 4th Century CE, in both Greek and Roman contexts. The underlying question taken up here is: in what situations was Greco-Roman religious practice articulated, communicated, and perceived in political contexts, both real and imagined? Written by experts in the fields of archaeology, linguistics, art history, historiography, political science and religion, the chapters of this volume engage the plurality and the diversity of the Greco-Roman religious experience as it receives and negotiates power relations.

Greek and Roman Festivals

Greek and Roman Festivals Pdf/ePub eBook Author: J. Rasmus Brandt,Jon W. Iddeng
Editor: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0191626260
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Greek and Roman Festivals by J. Rasmus Brandt,Jon W. Iddeng Summary

Festivals were the heartbeat of Greek and Roman society and fulfilled significant roles in its social and political organization and within its institutions. Setting the rhythm of the year, festivals were a common denominator for a wide-ranging series of phenomena that concerned a large area of social relationships: social and political processes were formed, maintained, altered, and sanctioned through religious celebrations, as well as uniting the populace in common acts centred on common symbols. The study of religious festivals and the fundamental social functions which they filled can significantly expand our insights into understanding the Greco-Roman world, the social processes it went through, and the symbols it used. Greek and Roman Festivals addresses the multi-faceted and complex nature of Greco-Roman festivals and analyses the connections that existed between them, as religious and social phenomena, and the historical dynamics that shaped them. The volume contains twelve articles which form an interdisciplinary perspective of classical scholarship, ranging from archaeology, history, and history of religions, to philology.

Ancient Greek Religion

Ancient Greek Religion Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Jon D. Mikalson,Andrej Petrovic,Ivana Petrovic
Editor: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119565642
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Ancient Greek Religion by Jon D. Mikalson,Andrej Petrovic,Ivana Petrovic Summary

Provides undergraduate students with a vibrant account of the religious world of ancient Greece, now in its third edition Ancient Greek Religion offers a detailed yet accessible introduction to the beliefs, myths, rituals, and deities of Greek religion. Author Jon D. Mikalson provides a vivid depiction of Greek religious practice in Athens, Delphi, and Olympia during the Classical period and in select other cities during the Hellenistic period. This reader-friendly textbook explains basic concepts of Greek polytheism, describes major deities and cults, and discusses various aspects of Greek religious life in the context of the city-state, the village, the family, and the individual. The revised third edition features new contributions by Andrej and Ivana Petrovic. It has two new chapters: one highlighting Roman, Christian, and modern scholars’ approaches to Greek religion and one identifying the types of sources used to understand and reconstruct ancient Greek religion. This edition also expands discussion of magic and personal practices and includes an updated and expanded bibliography for each chapter. This popular textbook: Offers thorough coverage of major Greek gods, heroes, myths, and cults Presents translations of ancient texts to promote reflection and discussion Features a glossary of recurring Greek terms and a wealth of high-quality color maps, images, figures, and illustrations Describes Greek religious practice from the perspectives of different worshippers, such as priests, slaves, family members, and public officials Discusses various interpretations of the gods and the afterlife, the nature of piety and impiety, and the larger social and political context of ancient Greece Ancient Greek Religion, Third Edition, remains the ideal introductory textbook for undergraduate courses including Greek Civilization, Greek Religion, Greek and Roman Religion, Ancient Religions, and Greek History. It is also an excellent source of reference for graduate students, instructors, and scholars studying religious life in Classical Greece.

Dionysus and Rome

Dionysus and Rome Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Fiachra Mac Góráin
Editor: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
ISBN: 3110672235
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Dionysus and Rome by Fiachra Mac Góráin Summary

While most work on Dionysus is based on Greek sources, this collection of essays examines the god’s Roman and Italian manifestations. Nine contributions address Bacchus’ appearance at the crossroads of Greek and Roman cultures, tracing continuities and differences between literary and archaeological sources for the god. The essays offer coverage of Dionysus in Roman art, Italian epigraphy; Latin poetry including epic, drama and elegy; and prose, including historiography, rhetorical and Christian discourse. The introduction offers an overview of the presence of Dionysus in Italy from the archaic to the imperial periods, identifying the main scholarly trends, with treatment of key Dionysian episodes in Roman history and literature. Individual chapters address the reception of Euripides’ Bacchae across Greek and Roman literature from Athens to Byzantium; Dionysus in Roman art of the archaic and Augustan periods; the god’s relationship with Fufluns and Liber in the 4th and 3rd centuries BCE; Dionysian associations; Bacchus in Cicero; Ovid’s Tristia 5.3; Bacchus in the writings of Christian Latin writers. The collection sheds light on a relatively understudied aspect of Dionysus, and will stimulate further research in this area.

The Last Pagans of Rome

The Last Pagans of Rome Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Alan Cameron
Editor: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199890137
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The Last Pagans of Rome by Alan Cameron Summary

Rufinus' vivid account of the battle between the Eastern Emperor Theodosius and the Western usurper Eugenius by the River Frigidus in 394 represents it as the final confrontation between paganism and Christianity. It is indeed widely believed that a largely pagan aristocracy remained a powerful and active force well into the fifth century, sponsoring pagan literary circles, patronage of the classics, and propaganda for the old cults in art and literature. The main focus of much modern scholarship on the end of paganism in the West has been on its supposed stubborn resistance to Christianity. The dismantling of this romantic myth is one of the main goals of Alan Cameron's book. Actually, the book argues, Western paganism petered out much earlier and more rapidly than hitherto assumed. The subject of this book is not the conversion of the last pagans but rather the duration, nature, and consequences of their survival. By re-examining the abundant textual evidence, both Christian (Ambrose, Augustine, Jerome, Paulinus, Prudentius) and "pagan" (Claudian, Macrobius, and Ammianus Marcellinus), as well as the visual evidence (ivory diptychs, illuminated manuscripts, silverware), Cameron shows that most of the activities and artifacts previously identified as hallmarks of a pagan revival were in fact just as important to the life of cultivated Christians. Far from being a subversive activity designed to rally pagans, the acceptance of classical literature, learning, and art by most elite Christians may actually have helped the last reluctant pagans to finally abandon the old cults and adopt Christianity. The culmination of decades of research, The Last Pagans of Rome overturns many long-held assumptions about pagan and Christian culture in the late antique West.

Astrology and Religion Among the Greeks and Romans

Astrology and Religion Among the Greeks and Romans Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Franz Valery Marie Cumont
Editor: Cosimo, Inc.
ISBN: 159605896X
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Astrology and Religion Among the Greeks and Romans by Franz Valery Marie Cumont Summary

Franz Cumont was one of the preeminent classical scholars of his day, and his investigations into the history of religion had a dramatic impact upon the fields of archaeology, comparative mythology, and anthropology. This 1912 volume collects the influential series of lectures he delivered across the United States highlighting one aspect of his groundbreaking studies of ancient worship: the reverence of the stars. He discusses... . the origins of astrology in ancient Babylonia . why ancient scientists believed the stars were divine . how astrology influenced Greek and Roman paganism . astrology as the official religion of the Roman Empire . and more.

Underworld Gods in Ancient Greek Religion

Underworld Gods in Ancient Greek Religion Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Ellie Mackin Roberts
Editor: Routledge
ISBN: 1351273701
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Underworld Gods in Ancient Greek Religion by Ellie Mackin Roberts Summary

This volume presents a case for how and why people in archaic and classical Greece worshipped Underworld gods. These gods are often portrayed as malevolent and transgressive, giving an impression that ancient worshippers derived little or no benefit from developing ongoing relationships with them. In this book, the first book-length study that focuses on Underworld gods as an integral part of the religious landscape of the period, Mackin Roberts challenges this view and shows that Underworld gods are, in many cases, approached and ‘befriended’ in the same way as any other kind of god. Underworld Gods in Ancient Greek Religion provides a fascinating insight into the worship of these deities, and will be of interest to anyone working on ancient Greek religion and cult.

Battling the Gods

Battling the Gods Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Tim Whitmarsh
Editor: Vintage
ISBN: 0307958337
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Battling the Gods by Tim Whitmarsh Summary

How new is atheism? Although adherents and opponents alike today present it as an invention of the European Enlightenment, when the forces of science and secularism broadly challenged those of faith, disbelief in the gods, in fact, originated in a far more remote past. In Battling the Gods, Tim Whitmarsh journeys into the ancient Mediterranean, a world almost unimaginably different from our own, to recover the stories and voices of those who first refused the divinities. Homer’s epic poems of human striving, journeying, and passion were ancient Greece’s only “sacred texts,” but no ancient Greek thought twice about questioning or mocking his stories of the gods. Priests were functionaries rather than sources of moral or cosmological wisdom. The absence of centralized religious authority made for an extraordinary variety of perspectives on sacred matters, from the devotional to the atheos, or “godless.” Whitmarsh explores this kaleidoscopic range of ideas about the gods, focusing on the colorful individuals who challenged their existence. Among these were some of the greatest ancient poets and philosophers and writers, as well as the less well known: Diagoras of Melos, perhaps the first self-professed atheist; Democritus, the first materialist; Socrates, executed for rejecting the gods of the Athenian state; Epicurus and his followers, who thought gods could not intervene in human affairs; the brilliantly mischievous satirist Lucian of Samosata. Before the revolutions of late antiquity, which saw the scriptural religions of Christianity and Islam enforced by imperial might, there were few constraints on belief. Everything changed, however, in the millennium between the appearance of the Homeric poems and Christianity’s establishment as Rome’s state religion in the fourth century AD. As successive Greco-Roman empires grew in size and complexity, and power was increasingly concentrated in central capitals, states sought to impose collective religious adherence, first to cults devoted to individual rulers, and ultimately to monotheism. In this new world, there was no room for outright disbelief: the label “atheist” was used now to demonize anyone who merely disagreed with the orthodoxy—and so it would remain for centuries. As the twenty-first century shapes up into a time of mass information, but also, paradoxically, of collective amnesia concerning the tangled histories of religions, Whitmarsh provides a bracing antidote to our assumptions about the roots of freethinking. By shining a light on atheism’s first thousand years, Battling the Gods offers a timely reminder that nonbelief has a wealth of tradition of its own, and, indeed, its own heroes.

Divination and Knowledge in Greco-Roman Antiquity

Divination and Knowledge in Greco-Roman Antiquity Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Crystal Addey
Editor: Routledge
ISBN: 1315449463
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Divination and Knowledge in Greco-Roman Antiquity by Crystal Addey Summary

Addressing the close connections between ancient divination and knowledge, this volume offers an interlinked and detailed set of case studies which examine the epistemic value and significance of divination in ancient Greek and Roman cultures. Focusing on diverse types of divination, including oracles, astrology, and the reading of omens and signs in the entrails of sacrificial animals, chance utterances and other earthly and celestial phenomena, this volume reveals that divination was conceived of as a significant path to the attainment of insight and understanding by the ancient Greeks and Romans. It also explores the connections between divination and other branches of knowledge in Greco-Roman antiquity, such as medicine and ethnographic discourse. Drawing on anthropological studies of contemporary divination and exploring a wide range of ancient philosophical, historical, technical and literary evidence, chapters focus on the interconnections and close relationship between divine and human modes of knowledge, in relation to nuanced and subtle formulations of the blending of divine, cosmic and human agency; philosophical approaches towards and uses of divination (particularly within Platonism), including links between divination and time, ethics, and cosmology; and the relationship between divination and cultural discourses focusing on gender. The volume aims to catalyse new questions and approaches relating to these under-investigated areas of ancient Greek and Roman life. which have significant implications for the ways in which we understand and assess ancient Greek and Roman conceptions of epistemic value and variant ways of knowing, ancient philosophy and intellectual culture, lived, daily experience in the ancient world, and religious and ritual traditions. Divination and Knowledge in Greco-Roman Antiquity will be of particular relevance to researchers and students in classics, ancient history, ancient philosophy, religious studies and anthropology who are working on divination, lived religion and intellectual culture, but will also appeal to general readers who are interested in the widespread practice and significance of divination in the ancient world.

Ancient Mediterranean Religions

Ancient Mediterranean Religions Pdf/ePub eBook Author: John C. Stephens
Editor: Cambridge Scholars Publishing
ISBN: 1443895512
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Ancient Mediterranean Religions by John C. Stephens Summary

This book offers a clear and concise historical overview of the major religious movements of the ancient Mediterranean world existing from the time of the second millennium BCE up until the fourth century CE, including both the Judeo-Christian and pagan religious traditions. Recognizing the significant role of religious institutions in human history and acknowledging the diversity of religious ideas and practices in the ancient Mediterranean world, “religion” is defined as a collection of myths, beliefs, rituals, ethical practices, social institutions and experiences related to the realm of the sacred cosmos. Without focusing too much attention on technicalities and complex vocabulary, the book provides an introductory road map for exploring the vast array of religious data permeating the ancient Mediterranean world. Through an examination of literary and archeological evidence, the book summarizes the fundamental religious beliefs and practices of the ancient Near Eastern world, including the religious traditions of ancient Mesopotamia, Egypt and Israel. Turning westward, the fascinating world of ancient Greek and Roman religion is considered next. The discussion begins with a description of Minoan-Mycenaean religion, followed by a consideration of classical Roman and Greek religion. Next, the numerous religious movements that blossomed during Hellenistic-Roman times are discussed. In addition, the fundamental theological contributions of various Greco-Roman philosophical schools of thought, including Orphism, Stoicism, Pythagoreanism, Platonism and Neo-Platonism, are described. Greco-Roman philosophy functioned as a quasi-religious outlook for many, and played a decisive role in the evolution of religion in the classical and Hellenistic period. The theological speculations of the philosophers regarding the nature of God and the soul made a huge impact in religious circles during the classical and Hellenistic era. Moving forward in history from archaic and classical times to the later Hellenistic-Roman period, the old religious order of the past falls by the wayside and a new updated religious paradigm begins to develop throughout the Mediterranean world, with a greater emphasis being placed upon the religious individual and the expression of personal religious feelings. There are several important social and historical reasons for this shift in perspective and these factors are explained in the chapter focusing upon personal religion in Hellenistic times. Since the entire religious topography of the ancient Mediterranean world is rarely outlined in a single volume, this book will be a welcome addition to anyone’s library.

Greek Religion

Greek Religion Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Valerie M. Warrior
Editor: Hackett Publishing
ISBN: 1585109878
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Greek Religion by Valerie M. Warrior Summary

Greek Religion: A Sourcebook provides an introduction to the fundamentals of ancient Greek religious beliefs and rituals through a rich collection of ancient source readings. The translations draw from the Focus Classical Library sources as well as new translations by the author and other outstanding scholars. Chapters cover such topics as ancient magic, mystery cults, divination, and festivals. Illustrated throughout with photos and maps, this book is designed as a companion to Valerie Warrior's Roman Religion: A Sourcebook.

At the Crossroads of Greco-Roman History, Culture, and Religion

At the Crossroads of Greco-Roman History, Culture, and Religion Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Sinclair W. Bell,Lora L. Holland
Editor: Archaeopress Publishing Ltd
ISBN: 1789690145
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At the Crossroads of Greco-Roman History, Culture, and Religion by Sinclair W. Bell,Lora L. Holland Summary

Papers in honour of Carin M. C. Green (1948-2015) are presented under 3 headings: (1) Greek philosophy, history, and historiography; (2) Latin literature, history, and historiography; and (3) Greco-Roman material culture, religion, and literature

Greek Religion

Greek Religion Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Walter Burkert
Editor: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118724976
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Greek Religion by Walter Burkert Summary

This is the first major synthesis of Greek religion to appear for a generation. A clearly structured and readable survey for classical scholars and students, it will also be generally welcomed as the best modern account of any polytheistic religious system. The text builds up an impressive and coherent picture of the current state of knowledge about the religion of the ancient Greeks.

Time in Roman Religion

Time in Roman Religion Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Gary Forsythe
Editor: Routledge
ISBN: 1136314415
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Time in Roman Religion by Gary Forsythe Summary

Religion is a major subfield of ancient history and classical studies, and Roman religion in particular is usually studied today by experts in two rather distinct halves: the religion of the Roman Republic, covering the fifth through first centuries B.C.; and the religious diversity of the Roman Empire, spanning the first four centuries of our era. In Time in Roman Religion, author Gary Forsythe examines both the religious history of the Republic and the religious history of the Empire. These six studies are unified by the important role played by various concepts of time in Roman religious thought and practice. Previous modern studies of early Roman religion in Republican times have discussed how the placement of religious ceremonies in the calendar was determined by their relevance to agricultural or military patterns of early Roman life, but modern scholars have failed to recognize that many aspects of Roman religious thought and behavior in later times were also preconditioned or even substantially influenced by concepts of time basic to earlier Roman religious history. This book is not a comprehensive survey of all major aspects of Roman religious history spanning one thousand years. Rather, it is a collection of six studies that are bound together by a single analytical theme: namely, time. Yet, in the process of delving into these six different topics the study surveys a large portion of Roman religious history in a representative fashion, from earliest times to the end of the ancient world and the triumph of Christianity.

The Origin of Sin

The Origin of Sin Pdf/ePub eBook Author: David Konstan
Editor: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1350278610
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The Origin of Sin by David Konstan Summary

Where did the idea of sin arise from? In this meticulously argued book, David Konstan takes a close look at classical Greek and Roman texts, as well as the Bible and early Judaic and Christian writings, and argues that the fundamental idea of "sin" arose in the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament, although this original meaning was obscured in later Jewish and Christian interpretations. Through close philological examination of the words for "sin," in particular the Hebrew hata' and the Greek hamartia, he traces their uses over the centuries in four chapters, and concludes that the common modern definition of sin as a violation of divine law indeed has antecedents in classical Greco-Roman conceptions, but acquired a wholly different sense in the Hebrew Bible and New Testament.

The Origin of Sin

The Origin of Sin Pdf/ePub eBook Author: David Konstan
Editor: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1350278602
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The Origin of Sin by David Konstan Summary

Where did the idea of sin arise from? In this meticulously argued book, David Konstan takes a close look at classical Greek and Roman texts, as well as the Bible and early Judaic and Christian writings, and argues that the fundamental idea of "sin" arose in the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament, although this original meaning was obscured in later Jewish and Christian interpretations. Through close philological examination of the words for "sin," in particular the Hebrew hata' and the Greek hamartia, he traces their uses over the centuries in four chapters, and concludes that the common modern definition of sin as a violation of divine law indeed has antecedents in classical Greco-Roman conceptions, but acquired a wholly different sense in the Hebrew Bible and New Testament.

Cannabis in the Ancient Greek and Roman World

Cannabis in the Ancient Greek and Roman World Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Alan Sumler
Editor: Lexington Books
ISBN: 1498560369
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Cannabis in the Ancient Greek and Roman World by Alan Sumler Summary

Cannabis in the Ancient Greek and Roman World explores the use of cannabis and hemp in medicine, religion, and recreation in the classical period. This work surveys the plant in Greek and Roman literature and provides a compendium of primary sources discussing hemp through the Middle Ages.

Mass and Elite in the Greek and Roman Worlds

Mass and Elite in the Greek and Roman Worlds Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Richard Evans
Editor: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 131706688X
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Mass and Elite in the Greek and Roman Worlds by Richard Evans Summary

This volume has its origin in the 14th University of South Africa Classics Colloquium in which the topic and title of the event were inspired by Josiah Ober’s seminal work Mass and Elite in Democratic Athens (1989). Indeed the influence this work has had on later research in all aspects of the Greek and Roman world is reflected by the diversity of the papers collected here, which take their cue and starting point from the argument that, in Ober’s words (1989, 338): ‘Rhetorical communication between masses and elites... was a primary means by which the strategic ends of social stability and political order were achieved.’ However, the contributors to the volume have also sought to build further on such conclusions and to offer new perceptions about a spread of issues affecting mass and elite interaction in a far wider number of locations around the ancient Mediterranean over a much longer chronological span. Thus the conclusions here suggest that once the concept of mass and elite was established in the minds of Greeks and later Romans it became a universal component of political life and from there was easily transferred to economic activity or religion. In casting the net beyond the confines of Athens (although the city is also represented here) to – amongst others – Syracuse, the cities of Asia Minor, Pompeii and Rome, and to literary and philosophical discourse, in each instance that interplay between the wider body of the community and the hierarchically privileged can be shown to have governed and directed the thoughts and actions of the participants.

Animals, Gods and Humans

Animals, Gods and Humans Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Ingvild Saelid Gilhus
Editor: Routledge
ISBN: 1134169159
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Animals, Gods and Humans by Ingvild Saelid Gilhus Summary

Consulting a wide range of key texts and source material, Animals, Gods and Humans covers 800 years and provides a detailed analysis of early Christian attitudes to, and the position of, animals in Greek and Roman life and thought. Both the pagan and Christian conceptions of animals are rich and multilayered, and Ingvild Sælid Gilhus expertly examines the dominant themes and developments in the conception of animals. Including study of: biographies of figures such as Apollonus of Tyana; natural history; the New Testament via Gnostic texts; the church fathers; and from pagan and Christian criticism of animal sacrifice, to the acts of martyrs, the source material and detailed analysis included in this volume make it a veritable feast of information for all classicists.

Greek and Roman Necromancy

Greek and Roman Necromancy Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Daniel Ogden
Editor: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 0691207062
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Greek and Roman Necromancy by Daniel Ogden Summary

In classical antiquity, there was much interest in necromancy--the consultation of the dead for divination. People could seek knowledge from the dead by sleeping on tombs, visiting oracles, and attempting to reanimate corpses and skulls. Ranging over many of the lands in which Greek and Roman civilizations flourished, including Egypt, from the Greek archaic period through the late Roman empire, this book is the first comprehensive survey of the subject ever published in any language. Daniel Ogden surveys the places, performers, and techniques of necromancy as well as the reasons for turning to it. He investigates the cave-based sites of oracles of the dead at Heracleia Pontica and Tainaron, as well as the oracles at the Acheron and Avernus, which probably consisted of lakeside precincts. He argues that the Acheron oracle has been long misidentified, and considers in detail the traditions attached to each site. Readers meet the personnel--real or imagined--of ancient necromancy: ghosts, zombies, the earliest vampires, evocators, sorcerers, shamans, Persian magi, Chaldaeans, Egyptians, Roman emperors, and witches from Circe to Medea. Ogden explains the technologies used to evocate or reanimate the dead and to compel them to disgorge their secrets. He concludes by examining ancient beliefs about ghosts and their wisdom--beliefs that underpinned and justified the practice of necromancy. The first of its kind and filled with information, this volume will be of central importance to those interested in the rapidly expanding, inherently fascinating, and intellectually exciting subjects of ghosts and magic in antiquity.

Greek and Roman Religions

Greek and Roman Religions Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Rebecca I. Denova
Editor: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118543009
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Greek and Roman Religions by Rebecca I. Denova Summary

Offers an introduction to the basic beliefs, practices, and major deities of Greek and Roman religions A volume in the Blackwell Ancient Religions, Greek and Roman Religions offers an authoritative overview of the region’s ancient religious practices. The author—a noted expert in the field—explores the presence of divinity in all aspects of ancient life and highlights the origins of myth, religious authority, institutions, beliefs, rituals, sacred texts, and ethics. Comprehensive in scope, the text focuses on myriad aspects that constitute Greco-Roman culture such as economic class, honor and shame, and slavery as well as the religious role of each member of the family. The integration of ethnic and community identity with divine elements are highlighted in descriptions of religious festivals. Greek and Roman Religions presents the evolution of ideas concerning death and the afterlife and the relation of death to concepts of ultimate justice. The author also offers insight into the elements of ancient religions that remain important in our contemporary quest for meaning. This vital text: Offers a comprehensive review of ancient Greek and Roman religions and their institutions, beliefs, rituals, and more Examines how the Roman culture and religions borrowed from the Greek traditions Explores the ancient civilizations of the Mediterranean Basin Contains suggestions at the end of each chapter for further reading that include both traditional studies and more recent examinations of topical issues Written for students of ancient religions and religious studies, this important resource provides an overview of the ancient culture and history of the general region as well as the basic background of Greek and Roman civilizations.

Magika Hiera

Magika Hiera Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Christopher A. Faraone,Dirk Obbink
Editor: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 019028319X
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Magika Hiera by Christopher A. Faraone,Dirk Obbink Summary

This collection challenges the tendency among scholars of ancient Greece to see magical and religious ritual as mutually exclusive and to ignore "magical" practices in Greek religion. The contributors survey specific bodies of archaeological, epigraphical, and papyrological evidence for magical practices in the Greek world, and, in each case, determine whether the traditional dichotomy between magic and religion helps in any way to conceptualize the objective features of the evidence examined. Contributors include Christopher A. Faraone, J.H.M. Strubbe, H.S. Versnel, Roy Kotansky, John Scarborough, Samuel Eitrem, Fritz Graf, John J. Winkler, Hans Dieter Betz, and C.R. Phillips.

The Jews among the Greeks and Romans (Illustrated Edition)

The Jews among the Greeks and Romans (Illustrated Edition) Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Max Radin
Editor: e-artnow
ISBN: 8026898702
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The Jews among the Greeks and Romans (Illustrated Edition) by Max Radin Summary

The Jews, as one of the Mediterranean nations, began to come into close contact with Greek civilization about the time of Alexander the Great. What has been attempted in the foregoing pages is an interpretation of certain facts of Jewish, Roman, and Greek history within a given period. The literature on the subject is enormous. A short bibliography is appended, in which various books of reference are cited. From these all who are interested in the innumerable controversies that the subject has elicited may obtain full information. Contents: Greek Religious Concepts Roman Religious Concepts Greek and Roman Concepts of Race Sketch of Jewish History between Nebuchadnezzar and Constantine Internal Development of the Jews during the Persian Period The First Contact between Greek and Jew Egypt Jews in Ptolemaic Egypt The Struggle against Greek Culture in Palestine Antiochus the Manifest God The Jewish Propaganda The Opposition The Opposition in Its Social Aspect The Philosophic Opposition The Romans Jews in Rome during the Early Empire The Jews of the Empire till the Revolt The Revolt of 68 C.E. The Development of the Roman Jewish Community The Final Revolts of the Jews The Legal Position of the Jews in the Later Empire

The Study of Greek and Roman Religions

The Study of Greek and Roman Religions Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Nickolas P. Roubekas
Editor: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1350102636
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The Study of Greek and Roman Religions by Nickolas P. Roubekas Summary

How should ancient religious ideas be approached? Is "religion" an applicable term to antiquity? Should classicists, ancient historians, and religious studies scholars work more closely together? Nickolas P. Roubekas argues that there is a disciplinary gap between the study of Greek and Roman religions and the study of “religion” as a category-a gap that has often resulted in contradictory conclusions regarding Greek and Roman religion. This book addresses this lack of interdisciplinarity by providing an overview, criticism, and assessment of this chasm. It provides a theoretical approach to this historical period, raising the issue of the relationship between “theory of religion” and “history of religion,” and explores how history influences theory and vice versa. It also presents an in-depth critique of some crucial problems that have been central to the discussions of scholars who work on Graeco-Roman antiquity, encouraging us to re-examine how we approach the study of ancient religions.

Studies in Hellenistic Religions

Studies in Hellenistic Religions Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Luther H. Martin
Editor: Wipf and Stock Publishers
ISBN: 149828308X
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Studies in Hellenistic Religions by Luther H. Martin Summary

This selection of essays by Luther Martin brings together studies from throughout his career—both early as well as more recent—in the various areas of Graeco-Roman religions, including mystery cults, Judaism, Christianity, and Gnosticism. It is hoped that these studies, which represent spatial, communal, and cognitive approaches to the study of ancient religions might be of interest to those concerned with the structures and dynamics of religions past in general, as well as to scholars who might, with more recent historical research, confirm, evaluate, extend, or refute the hypotheses offered here, for that is the way scholars work and by which scholarship proceeds.

A Companion to Greek and Roman Sexualities

A Companion to Greek and Roman Sexualities Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Thomas K. Hubbard
Editor: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118610687
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A Companion to Greek and Roman Sexualities by Thomas K. Hubbard Summary

A Companion to Greek and Roman Sexualities presents a comprehensive collection of original essays relating to aspects of gender and sexuality in the classical world. Views the various practices and discursive contexts of sexuality systematically and holistically Discusses Greece and Rome in each chapter, with sensitivity to the continuities and differences between the two classical civilizations Addresses the classical influence on the understanding of later ages and religion Covers artistic and literary genres, various social environments of sexual conduct, and the technical disciplines of medicine, magic, physiognomy, and dream interpretation Features contributions from more than 40 top international scholars

On Greek Religion

On Greek Religion Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Robert Parker
Editor: Cornell University Press
ISBN: 9780801462016
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On Greek Religion by Robert Parker Summary

"There is something of a paradox about our access to ancient Greek religion. We know too much, and too little. The materials that bear on it far outreach an individual's capacity to assimilate: so many casual allusions in so many literary texts over more than a millennium, so many direct or indirect references in so many inscriptions from so many places in the Greek world, such an overwhelming abundance of physical remains. But genuinely revealing evidence does not often cluster coherently enough to create a vivid sense of the religious realities of a particular time and place. Amid a vast archipelago of scattered islets of information, only a few are of a size to be habitable."—from the Preface In On Greek Religion, Robert Parker offers a provocative and wide-ranging entrée into the world of ancient Greek religion, focusing especially on the interpretive challenge of studying a religious system that in many ways remains desperately alien from the vantage point of the twenty-first century. One of the world's leading authorities on ancient Greek religion, Parker raises fundamental methodological questions about the study of this vast subject. Given the abundance of evidence we now have about the nature and practice of religion among the ancient Greeks—including literary, historical, and archaeological sources—how can we best exploit that evidence and agree on the central underlying issues? Is it possible to develop a larger, "unified" theoretical framework that allows for coherent discussions among archaeologists, anthropologists, literary scholars, and historians? In seven thematic chapters, Parker focuses on key themes in Greek religion: the epistemological basis of Greek religion; the relation of ritual to belief; theories of sacrifice; the nature of gods and heroes; the meaning of rituals, festivals, and feasts; and the absence of religious authority. Ranging across the archaic, classical, and Hellenistic periods, he draws on multiple disciplines both within and outside classical studies. He also remains sensitive to varieties of Greek religious experience. Also included are five appendixes in which Parker applies his innovative methodological approach to particular cases, such as the acceptance of new gods and the consultation of oracles. On Greek Religion will stir debate for its bold questioning of disciplinary norms and for offering scholars and students new points of departure for future research.

The Mysterious Spheres on Greek and Roman Ancient Coins

The Mysterious Spheres on Greek and Roman Ancient Coins Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Raymond V. Sidrys
Editor: Archaeopress Publishing Ltd
ISBN: 1789697913
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The Mysterious Spheres on Greek and Roman Ancient Coins by Raymond V. Sidrys Summary

This book is not a standard coin catalogue, but it focuses on quantities and percentages of the mysterious 5950 sphere images on Roman coin reverses, and a few Greek coins. This research identifies political, cultural, religious and propaganda trends associated with the coin sphere images, and offers a variety of new findings.

Daughters of Hecate

Daughters of Hecate Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Kimberly B. Stratton,Dayna S. Kalleres
Editor: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190202149
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Daughters of Hecate by Kimberly B. Stratton,Dayna S. Kalleres Summary

Daughters of Hecate unites for the first time research on the problem of gender and magic in three ancient Mediterranean societies: early Judaism, Christianity, and Graeco-Roman culture. The book illuminates the gendering of ancient magic by approaching the topic from three distinct disciplinary perspectives: literary stereotyping, the social application of magic discourse, and material culture. The authors probe the foundations of, processes, and motivations behind gendered stereotypes, beginning with Western culture's earliest associations of women and magic in the Bible and Homer's Odyssey. Daughters of Hecate provides a nuanced exploration of the topic while avoiding reductive approaches. In fact, the essays in this volume uncover complexities and counter-discourses that challenge, rather than reaffirm, many gendered stereotypes taken for granted and reified by most modern scholarship. By combining critical theoretical methods with research into literary and material evidence, Daughters of Hecate interrogates a false association that has persisted from antiquity, to early modern witch hunts, to the present day.

The Extramercantile Economies of Greek and Roman Cities

The Extramercantile Economies of Greek and Roman Cities Pdf/ePub eBook Author: David B. Hollander,Thomas R. Blanton IV,John T. Fitzgerald
Editor: Routledge
ISBN: 1351004808
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The Extramercantile Economies of Greek and Roman Cities by David B. Hollander,Thomas R. Blanton IV,John T. Fitzgerald Summary

Recent work on the ancient economy has tended to concentrate on market exchange, but other forces also caused goods to change hands. Such nonmarket transfers ranged from small private gifts to the wholesale confiscation of cities, lands, and their peoples. The papers presented in this volume examine aspects of this extramercantile economy, particularly benefaction and the role of associations, as well as their impact on the market economy. This volume brings together ancient historians, New Testament scholars, and classicists to assess critically the New Institutional Economics framework. Combining theoretical approaches with detailed investigations of particular regions and topics, its chapters examine Greek economic thought, the benefits of membership in private associations, and the economic role of civic euergetism from classical Athens to the municipalities of Roman Spain. The Extramercantile Economies of Greek and Roman Cities will be of use to those interested in the economic context of ancient religions, the role of associations in the economy, theoretical approaches to the study of the ancient economy, labor and politics in the ancient city, as well as how Greek philosophers, from Xenophon to Philodemus, developed ethical ideas about economic behavior.

A Greek Roman Empire

A Greek Roman Empire Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Fergus Millar
Editor: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 9780520941410
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A Greek Roman Empire by Fergus Millar Summary

In the first half of the fifth century, the Latin-speaking part of the Roman Empire suffered vast losses of territory to barbarian invaders. But in the Greek-speaking half of the Eastern Mediterranean, with its capital at Constantinople, there was a stable and successful system, using Latin as its official language, but communicating with its subjects in Greek. This book takes an inside look at how this system worked in the long reign of the pious Christian Emperor Theodosius II (408-50), and analyzes its largely successful defense of its frontiers, its internal coherence, and its relations with its subjects, with a flow of demands and suggestions traveling up the hierarchy to the Emperor, and a long series of laws, often set out in elaborately self-justificatory detail, addressed by the Emperor, through his officials, to the people. Above all, this book focuses on the Imperial mission to promote the unity of the Church, the State’s involvement in intensely-debated doctrinal questions, and the calling by the Emperor of two major Church Councils at Ephesus, in 431 and 449. Between the Law codes and the acts of the Church Councils, the material illustrating the working of government and the involvement of State and church, is incomparably richer, more detailed, and more vivid than for any previous period.

The Matter of the Gods

The Matter of the Gods Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Clifford Ando
Editor: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 9780520933651
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The Matter of the Gods by Clifford Ando Summary

What did the Romans know about their gods? Why did they perform the rituals of their religion, and what motivated them to change those rituals? To these questions Clifford Ando proposes simple answers: In contrast to ancient Christians, who had faith, Romans had knowledge, and their knowledge was empirical in orientation. In other words, the Romans acquired knowledge of the gods through observation of the world, and their rituals were maintained or modified in light of what they learned. After a preface and opening chapters that lay out this argument about knowledge and place it in context, The Matter of the Gods pursues a variety of themes essential to the study of religion in history.

Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion

Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Jane Ellen Harrison
Editor: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 0691227462
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Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion by Jane Ellen Harrison Summary

Jane Harrison examines the festivals of ancient Greek religion to identify the primitive "substratum" of ritual and its persistence in the realm of classical religious observance and literature. In Harrison's preface to this remarkable book, she writes that J. G. Frazer's work had become part and parcel of her "mental furniture" and that of others studying primitive religion. Today, those who write on ancient myth or ritual are bound to say the same about Harrison. Her essential ideas, best developed and most clearly put in the Prolegomena, have never been eclipsed.

The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion

The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Esther Eidinow,Julia Kindt
Editor: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191058076
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The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion by Esther Eidinow,Julia Kindt Summary

This handbook offers both students and teachers of ancient Greek religion a comprehensive overview of the current state of scholarship in the subject, from the Archaic to the Hellenistic periods. It not only presents key information, but also explores the ways in which such information is gathered and the different approaches that have shaped the area. In doing so, the volume provides a crucial research and orientation tool for students of the ancient world, and also makes a vital contribution to the key debates surrounding the conceptualization of ancient Greek religion. The handbook's initial chapters lay out the key dimensions of ancient Greek religion, approaches to evidence, and the representations of myths. The following chapters discuss the continuities and differences between religious practices in different cultures, including Egypt, the Near East, the Black Sea, and Bactria and India. The range of contributions emphasizes the diversity of relationships between mortals and the supernatural - in all their manifestations, across, between, and beyond ancient Greek cultures - and draws attention to religious activities as dynamic, highlighting how they changed over time, place, and context.

Animals in Ancient Greek Religion

Animals in Ancient Greek Religion Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Julia Kindt
Editor: Routledge
ISBN: 0429754590
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Animals in Ancient Greek Religion by Julia Kindt Summary

This book provides the first systematic study of the role of animals in different areas of the ancient Greek religious experience, including in myth and ritual, the literary and the material evidence, the real and the imaginary. An international team of renowned contributors shows that animals had a sustained presence not only in the traditionally well-researched cultural practice of blood sacrifice but across the full spectrum of ancient Greek religious beliefs and practices. Animals played a role in divination, epiphany, ritual healing, the setting up of dedications, the writing of binding spells, and the instigation of other ‘magical’ means. Taken together, the individual contributions to this book illustrate that ancient Greek religion constituted a triangular symbolic system encompassing not just gods and humans, but also animals as a third player and point of reference. Animals in Ancient Greek Religion will be of interest to students and scholars of Greek religion, Greek myth, and ancient religion more broadly, as well as for anyone interested in human/animal relations in the ancient world.

Sex and the Constitution: Sex, Religion, and Law from America's Origins to the Twenty-First Century

Sex and the Constitution: Sex, Religion, and Law from America's Origins to the Twenty-First Century Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Geoffrey R. Stone
Editor: Liveright Publishing
ISBN: 1631493655
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Sex and the Constitution: Sex, Religion, and Law from America's Origins to the Twenty-First Century by Geoffrey R. Stone Summary

A New York Times Book Review Editors’ Choice Selection A “volume of lasting significance” that illuminates how the clash between sex and religion has defined our nation’s history (Lee C. Bollinger, president, Columbia University). Lauded for “bringing a bracing and much-needed dose of reality about the Founders’ views of sexuality” (New York Review of Books), Geoffrey R. Stone’s Sex and the Constitution traces the evolution of legal and moral codes that have legislated sexual behavior from America’s earliest days to today’s fractious political climate. This “fascinating and maddening” (Pittsburgh Post-Gazette) narrative shows how agitators, moralists, and, especially, the justices of the Supreme Court have navigated issues as divisive as abortion, homosexuality, pornography, and contraception. Overturning a raft of contemporary shibboleths, Stone reveals that at the time the Constitution was adopted there were no laws against obscenity or abortion before the midpoint of pregnancy. A pageant of historical characters, including Voltaire, Thomas Jefferson, Anthony Comstock, Margaret Sanger, and Justice Anthony Kennedy, enliven this “commanding synthesis of scholarship” (Publishers Weekly) that dramatically reveals how our laws about sex, religion, and morality reflect the cultural schisms that have cleaved our nation from its founding.

Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion

Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Andrej Petrovic,Ivana Petrovic
Editor: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0191080942
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Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion by Andrej Petrovic,Ivana Petrovic Summary

Was Ancient Greek religion really 'mere ritualism'? Early Christians denounced the pagans for the disorderly plurality of their cults, and reduced Greek religion to ritual and idolatry; protestant theologians condemned the pagan 'religion of form' (with Catholicism as its historical heir). For a long time, scholars tended to conceptualize Greek religion as one in which belief did not matter, and religiosity had to do with observance of rituals and religious practices, rather than with worshipers' inner investment. But what does it mean when Greek texts time and again speak of purity of mind, soul, and thoughts? This book takes a radical new look at the Ancient Greek notions of purity and pollution. Its main concern is the inner state of the individual worshipper as they approach the gods and interact with the divine realm in a ritual context. It is a book about Greek worshippers' inner attitudes towards the gods and rituals, and about what kind of inner attitude the Greek gods were envisaged to expect from their worshippers. In the wider sense, it is a book about the role of belief in ancient Greek religion. By exploring the Greek notions of inner purity and pollution from Hesiod to Plato, the significance of intrinsic, faith-based elements in Greek religious practices is revealed - thus providing the first history of the concepts of inner purity and pollution in early Greek religion.

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